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The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of proteins is involved in regulating cellular fates such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In particular, the dynamics of the Erk/Mek system, which has become the canonical example for MAPK signaling systems, have attracted considerable attention. Erk is encoded by two genes, Erk1 and Erk2,(More)
Intraplaque hemorrhage accelerates atherosclerosis via oxidant stress and contributes to lesion development and destabilization. Normally, macrophages scavenge hemoglobin-haptoglobin (HbHp) complexes via CD163, and this process provokes the secretion of the anti-inflammatory atheroprotective cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. We therefore tested the hypothesis(More)
BACKGROUND A key physiological mechanism employed by multicellular organisms is apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Apoptosis is triggered by the activation of caspases in response to both extracellular (extrinsic) and intracellular (intrinsic) signals. The extrinsic and intrinsic pathways are characterized by the formation of the death-inducing signaling(More)
Apoptosis is a highly regulated cell death mechanism involved in many physiological processes. A key component of extrinsically activated apoptosis is the death receptor Fas which, on binding to its cognate ligand FasL, oligomerize to form the death-inducing signaling complex. Motivated by recent experimental data, we propose a mathematical model of death(More)
A hybrid model for tumor-induced angiogenesis in the cornea in the presence of inhibitors Abstract The present work formulates and analyzes, by means of numerical experiments, a model for tumor-induced angiogenesis in the presence of inhibitors in the cornea. Our model is a generalization of the earlier work of Tong and Yuan [S. Tong, F. Yuan, Numerical(More)
The phenotype and function of cells enriched in tumor-propagating activity and their relationship to the phenotypic architecture in multiple myeloma (MM) are controversial. Here, in a cohort of 30 patients, we show that MM composes 4 hierarchically organized, clonally related subpopulations, which, although phenotypically distinct, share the same oncogenic(More)
We introduce a procedure for deciding when a mass-action model is incompatible with observed steady-state data that does not require any parameter estimation. Thus, we avoid the difficulties of nonlinear optimization typically associated with methods based on parameter fitting. Instead, we borrow ideas from algebraic geometry to construct a transformation(More)
The transition between the proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells is a key step in organogenesis, and alterations in this process can lead to developmental disorders. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) signaling pathway is one of the most intensively studied signaling mechanisms that regulates both proliferation and(More)
Social and biological contagions are influenced by the spatial embeddedness of networks. Historically, many epidemics spread as a wave across part of the Earth's surface; however, in modern contagions long-range edges-for example, due to airline transportation or communication media-allow clusters of a contagion to appear in distant locations. Here we study(More)
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mediated by β-catenin, is crucially involved in development, adult stem cell tissue maintenance, and a host of diseases including cancer. We analyze existing mathematical models of Wnt and compare them to a new Wnt signaling model that targets spatial localization; our aim is to distinguish between the models and distill(More)