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Increases in dopamine and glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens independently promote the reinstatement of cocaine seeking, an animal model of relapse. Here we have tested whether cocaine reinstatement in rats depends on interactions between accumbal dopamine and glutamate systems that are mediated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated kinase II (CaMKII).(More)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by structural and neurochemical changes in limbic structures, including the hippocampus, that regulate mood and cognitive functions. Hippocampal atrophy is observed in patients with depression and this effect is blocked or reversed by antidepressant treatments. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are involved in both cocaine reinforcement and the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. In the present experiments, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under fixed ratio (for cocaine priming-induced reinstatement) or second-order (for cocaine cue-induced(More)
Cocaine self-administration alters patterns of gene expression in the brain that may underlie cocaine-induced neuronal plasticity. In the present study, male Sprague Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) 2 h/d for 14 d, followed by 7 d of forced abstinence. Compared with yoked saline control rats, cocaine self-administration(More)
Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy in preventing relapse and maintaining abstinence during withdrawal. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that also acts as a positive allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Galantamine has recently been shown to reverse nicotine withdrawal-induced cognitive(More)
A growing body of evidence indicates that repeated exposure to cocaine leads to profound changes in glutamate transmission in limbic nuclei, particularly the nucleus accumbens. This review focuses on preclinical studies of cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity, including behavioral sensitization, self-administration, and the reinstatement of cocaine(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation (DBS), which is currently being used as a therapy for neurological diseases, may be effective in the treatment of psychiatric disorders as well. Here, we examined the influence of DBS of the nucleus accumbens shell on cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, an animal model of relapse.(More)
Cocaine addiction in human addicts is characterized by a high rate of relapse following successful detoxification. Relapse to drug taking/seeking can be precipitated by several stimuli including, but not limited to, re-exposure to cocaine itself. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying cocaine craving, a substantial effort has been devoted to(More)
In the present experiments we administered an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist (CNQX), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (AP-5), or l-type calcium channel blocker (diltiazem) directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) before each of four daily systemic cocaine injections in order to(More)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous illness for which there are currently no effective methods to objectively assess severity, endophenotypes, or response to treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that circulating levels of peripheral/serum growth factors and cytokines are altered in patients with MDD, and that antidepressant treatments(More)