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Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), a flavonoid originated from the root of a medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activities in various cell types including macrophages. In this work, we have found that wogonin is a potent neuroprotector from natural source. Wogonin inhibited inflammatory(More)
TLRs mediate diverse signaling after recognition of evolutionary conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as LPS and lipopeptides. Both TLR2 and TLR4 are known to trigger a protective immune response as well as cellular apoptosis. In this study, we present evidence that TLR4, but not TLR2, mediates an autoregulatory apoptosis of activated(More)
In vitro exposure of microglial cells to hypoxia induces cellular activation. Also, in vivo studies of glial activation following ischemic hypoxia have shown that neuronal cell death is followed by microglial activation. Thus, it is likely that toxic inflammatory mediators produced by activated microglial cells under hypoxic conditions may exacerbate(More)
Caspase-11 is an inducible protease that plays an important role in both inflammation and apoptosis. Inflammatory stimuli induce and activate caspase-11, which is required for the activation of caspase-1 or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) converting enzyme (ICE). Caspase-1 in turn mediates the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, which is(More)
Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid originated from the root of Chinese medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and it is a well known inhibitor of 12-lipoxygenase. We have previously reported that neuroglia undergo nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and NO-independent apoptosis upon(More)
Neuropeptides are short-chain peptides found in brain tissue, some of which function as neurotransmitters and others as hormones. Neuropeptides may directly or indirectly modulate glial functions in the CNS. In the present study, effects of various neuropeptides on the viability and inflammatory activation of cultured microglia were investigated. Vasoactive(More)
Mouse brain microglial cells undergo apoptosis on exposure to inflammatory stimuli, which is considered as an autoregulatory mechanism to control their own activation. Here, we present evidence that an antiproliferative B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) constitutes a novel apoptotic pathway of LPS/IFN-gamma-activated microglia. The expression of BTG1 was(More)
In spite of well-known deleterious effects of alcohol on the nervous system in general, its specific effect on the brain immune system remains poorly understood. In order to better understand the effect of alcohol consumption on the innate immunity and inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS), we sought to determine how ethanol influences(More)
We have investigated the possible effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on signal transduction pathways associated with inflammatory activation of BV-2 mouse microglia cells. Pretreatment of the cells with PACAP resulted in a significant decrease in LPS- or IFNgamma-induced NO production as well as iNOS and IL-1beta mRNA(More)
Brain microglial cells are thought to undergo apoptosis following the exposure to inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFNgamma, which is considered as an autoregulatory mechanism to control their own activation state. Here, we report that N-myc constitutes a novel apoptotic pathway of LPS/IFNgamma-activated microglia. The expression of(More)