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Signalling by the Wnt family of secreted lipoproteins has essential functions in development and disease. The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway requires a single-span transmembrane receptor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), whose phosphorylation at multiple PPPSP motifs is induced upon stimulation by Wnt and is critical for(More)
Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has central roles in development and diseases, and is initiated by the action of the frizzled (Fz) receptor, its coreceptor LDL receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6), and the cytoplasmic dishevelled (Dvl) protein. The functional relationships among Fz, Lrp6 and Dvl have long been enigmatic. We demonstrated previously that(More)
This study investigated the use of surface electromyography (EMG) combined with pattern recognition (PR) to identify user locomotion modes. Due to the nonstationary characteristics of leg EMG signals during locomotion, a new phase-dependent EMG PR strategy was proposed for classifying the user's locomotion modes. The variables of the system were studied for(More)
The ordinary Takagi–Sugeno (TS) fuzzy models have provided an approach to represent complex nonlinear systems to a set of linear sub-models by using fuzzy sets and fuzzy reasoning. In this paper, stochastic fuzzy Hopfield neural networks with timevarying delays (SFVDHNNs) are studied. The model of SFVDHNN is first established as a modified TS fuzzy model in(More)
Wnt signaling stabilizes β-catenin through the LRP6 receptor signaling complex, which antagonizes the β-catenin destruction complex. The Axin scaffold and associated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) have central roles in both assemblies, but the transduction mechanism from the receptor to the destruction complex is contentious. We report that Wnt signaling(More)
The utility of CRISPR-Cas9 and TALENs for genome editing may be compromised by their off-target activity. We show that integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) can detect such off-target cleavage with a frequency as low as 1%. In the case of Cas9, we find frequent off-target sites with a one-base bulge or up to 13 mismatches between the single guide(More)
This paper focuses on studying the and generalized filtering problems for a class of delayed neural networks. The time-varying delay is only required to be continuous and bounded. Delay-dependent criteria are proposed such that the resulting filtering error system is globally exponentially stable with a guaranteed or generalized performance. It is also(More)
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for stem cell regulation and tumorigenesis, but its molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we report that FoxM1 is a downstream component of Wnt signaling and is critical for β-catenin transcriptional function in tumor cells. Wnt3a increases the level and nuclear translocation of FoxM1, which binds directly(More)
The PML gene of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) encodes a cell-growth and tumor suppressor. PML localizes to discrete nuclear bodies (NBs) that are disrupted in APL cells, resulting from a reciprocal chromosome translocation t (15;17). Here we show that the nuclear localization of PML is also regulated by SUMO-3, one of the three recently identified SUMO(More)
In this study, we developed an algorithm based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion to continuously recognize a variety of locomotion modes performed by patients with transfemoral (TF) amputations. Electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from gluteal and residual thigh muscles and ground reaction forces/moments measured from the prosthetic pylon were used as(More)