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OBJECTIVE The medullary R2 response of the blink reflex can be elicited by innocuous and noxious stimuli. The purpose of this study was to elicit a nociception specific R2 response with a new surface electrode. METHODS In 10 healthy subjects the blink reflex was elicited using a standard (10-15 mA) and a new concentric surface electrode type (0.6-1.6 mA)(More)
We identified clinical, demographic and psychological predictive factors that may contribute to the development of chronic headache associated with mild to moderate whiplash injury [Quebec Task Force (QTF) ≤ II] and determined the incidence of this chronic pain state. Patients were recruited prospectively from six participating accident and emergency(More)
Brainstem-mediated antinociceptive inhibitory reflexes of the temporalis muscle were investigated in 82 patients (47 F, 35 M, mean age 28.3 years, SD 9.4) with acute posttraumatic headache (PH) following whiplash injury but without neurological deficits, bone injury of the cervical spine or a combined direct head trauma on average 5 days after the(More)
Methods PREVA was a randomized, well-controlled study comprised of a 2-week run-in phase, a 4-week randomized (1:1; nVNS vs standard of care [SoC]) phase, and a 4-week extension phase. Subjects delivered stimulations prophylactically twice daily (mandatory) or optionally for the rescue treatment of CH attacks. Three validated scales (EQ5D-3LTM, Headache(More)
Methods PREVA was a multicenter study comprised of 3 phases: 2week run-in, 4-week randomized (1:1; nVNS vs SoC), and 4-week extension. Subjects randomized to nVNS delivered stimulations prophylactically twice daily (mandatory) and optionally for the rescue treatment of CH attack. The primary efficacy end point was the reduction in number of CH attacks/week(More)
Introduction Drugtherapy of pain and headache disorders was substantially improved during the last decades. However, in some patients headaches poorly respond to drug treatment, especially in chronic courses of disease. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) offers a new therapeutic approach in these patients. The underlying mechanisms of this(More)
Methods This randomized, controlled study consisted of a 2-week run-in phase, followed by a 4-week randomized (1:1; nVNS vs standard of care [SoC]) phase, and a 4-week extension phase. During the extension phase, subjects delivered 3 consecutive 90-second stimulations prophylactically twice daily (mandatory, right side only) and optionally at the onset of a(More)
Design/methods PREEMPT (two phase 3 studies: 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase, followed by 32week, open-label phase) evaluated onabotulinumtoxinA for prophylaxis of headaches in CM (¡Ý15 days/month with headache lasting ¡Ý4 hours/day). Patients were stratified based on AHM use during 28-day baseline and randomized (1:1) to(More)
Introduction TN usually leads to paroxysms of short lasting but very severe pain. Between the attacks the patient is usually asymptomatic, but a constant dull background pain may persist. Carbamazepine is currently the drug of first choice in the treatment of TN. It is efficient in 70-80% of patients but often associated with severe adverse effects such as(More)
We present a series of seven migraine patients with typical features of a migraine attack without aura, but atypical pain localization in the face in one or both of the lower two distributions of the trigeminal nerve (V2 and V3). All of them responded well to triptans. Three patients responded to preventive treatment for migraine with beta-blockers (n = 2)(More)