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Fetuin-A is synthesized in the liver and may be associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle-induced weight loss reduces fetuin-A, but the effect of exercise alone is unknown. We determined the effect of short-term exercise training on plasma fetuin-A in 13 (50.5 ± 3.4 yr) obese adults (body mass index, 33.3 ± 0.9(More)
To examine the effects of acute altitude-induced hypoxia on the hormonal and metabolic response to ingested glucose, 8 young, healthy subjects (5 men and 3 women; age, 26 +/- 2 years; body mass index, 23.1 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2)) performed 2 randomized trials in a hypobaric chamber where a 75-g glucose solution was ingested under simulated altitude (ALT, 4300 m)(More)
Recent human and animal studies have demonstrated that in severe end-stage heart failure (HF), the cardiac muscle switches to a more fetal metabolic phenotype, characterized by downregulation of free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation and an enhancement of glucose oxidation. The goal of this study was to examine myocardial substrate metabolism in a model of(More)
A high rate of cardiac work increases citric acid cycle (CAC) turnover and flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH); however, the mechanisms for these effects are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that an increase in cardiac energy expenditure: (1) activates PDH and reduces the product/substrate ratios ([NADH]/[NAD(+)] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA-SH]);(More)
Inhibition of myocardial fatty acid oxidation can improve left ventricular (LV) mechanical efficiency by increasing LV power for a given rate of myocardial energy expenditure. This phenomenon has not been assessed at high workloads in nonischemic myocardium; therefore, we subjected in vivo pig hearts to a high workload for 5 min and assessed whether(More)
Normal cardiac metabolism requires continuous replenishment (anaplerosis) of catalytic intermediates of the citric acid cycle. Little is known about the quantitative aspects of propionate as a substrate of in vivo anaplerosis; therefore, we measured the rate of propionate entry into the citric acid cycle in hearts of anesthetized pigs.(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that gastric bypass would produce rapid improvements in endothelial function, reduce inflammation, and lead to a decrease in cardiovascular risk.(More)
OBJECTIVE Clinical trials in patients with stable angina show that drugs that partially inhibit myocardial fatty acid oxidation reduce the symptoms of demand-induced ischemia, presumably by reducing lactate production and improving regional systolic function. We tested the hypothesis that partial inhibition of fatty acid oxidation with oxfenicine (a(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a transcriptional regulator of the expression of mitochondrial thioesterase I (MTE-I) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), which are induced in the heart at the mRNA level in response to diabetes. Little is known about the regulation of protein expression of MTE-I and UCP3 or about MTE-I activity;(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and plasma ceramides in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS Twenty-four adults with obesity and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 14) or diabetes (n = 10) were studied before and after a 12-week supervised exercise-training program (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 80-85% of maximum(More)