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CONTEXT Traumatic brain injury in the pediatric population can have a great economic and emotional impact on both the child's family and society. OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to compare the effects of carnosine (CAR) and/or cyclosporine A (CyA) on oxidative brain damage after closed head injury (CHI) in immature rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1) enhances the expression of apoptosis induced by certain cytokines and oncogenes. Activation of small mother against decapentaplegic (Smads) by TGF-β results in fibrotic, apoptotic processes. PI-3/AKT focal adhesion kinase-phosphatidylinositol3-kinase (AKT), the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of silymarin (SIL), alone and combined with chlorogenic acid (CA) and/or melatonin (ME), using a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg, IP). One day after, rats were received SIL(More)
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