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The origin of vascular pericytes (PCs) and smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) in the brain has hitherto remained an open question. In the present study, we used the quail-chick chimerization technique to elucidate the lineage of cranial PCs/vSMCs. We transplanted complete halves of brain anlagen, or dorsal (presumptive neural crest [NC]) or ventral cranial neural(More)
First steps of blood vessel formation and patterning in the central nervous system (CNS) of higher vertebrates are presented. Corresponding to the regional diversity of the embryonic CNS (unsegmented spinal cord vs segmented brain anlagen) and its surroundings (segmented trunk vs unsegmented head mesoderm, neural crest-derived mesenchyme), cells of(More)
We propose the use of slow-light, band-edge waveguides for compact, integrated, tunable optical time delays. We show that slow group velocities at the photonic band edge give rise to large changes in time delay for small changes in refractive index, thereby shrinking device size. Figures of merit are introduced to quantify the sensitivity, as well as the(More)
Fgf-8 encodes a secreted signaling molecule mediating key roles in embryonic patterning. This study analyzes the expression pattern, regulation, and function of this growth factor in the paraxial mesoderm of the avian embryo. In the mature somite, expression of Fgf-8 is restricted to a subpopulation of myotome cells, comprising most, but not all, epaxial(More)
We introduce and discuss a new method for segmentation and classification of cells from 3D tissue probes. The anisotropic 3D volumetric data of fluorescent marked cell nuclei is recorded by a confo-cal laser scanning microscope (LSM). Voxel-wise gray scale features (see accompaning paper [1][2]), invariant towards 3D rotation of its neighborhood , are(More)
The design of living beings is not only a matter of molecular biology but also of geometry and physics. This was once more demonstrated with a biophysical model by G. B. West et al. (1) that had been fine-tuned to predict the famous scaling law of metabolism (2), namely a 3/4 power relation between body mass and energy consumption. While properties and(More)
We present novel metamaterial structures based upon various planar wallpaper groups, in both hexagonal and square unit cells. An investigation of metamaterials consisting of one, two, and three unique sub-lattices with resonant frequencies in the terahertz (THz) was performed. We describe the theory, perform simulations, and conduct experiments to(More)
We demonstrate microfluidic devices for terahertz spectroscopy of biomolecules in aqueous solutions. The devices are fabricated out of a plastic material that is both mechanically rigid and optically transparent with near-zero dispersion in the terahertz frequency range. Using a low-power terahertz time-domain spectrometer, we experimentally measure the(More)
In the hippocampus, neurons and fiber projections are strictly organized in layers and supplied with oxygen via a vascular network that also develops layer-specific characteristics in wild-type mice, as shown in the present study for the first time in a quantitative manner. By contrast, in the reeler mutant, well known for its neuronal migration defects due(More)