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Information storage in the brain is a temporally graded process involving different memory types or phases. It has been assumed for over a century that one or more short-term memory (STM) processes are involved in processing new information while long-term memory (LTM) is being formed. Because brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) modulates both short-term(More)
Long-term memory (LTM) consolidation requires the synthesis of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs). In addition, we have shown recently that LTM formation also requires the setting of a "learning tag" able to capture those PRPs. Weak training, which results only in short-term memory, can set a tag to use PRPs derived from a temporal-spatial closely related(More)
The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has been shown to participate in memory formation. We recently found that a hippocampal ERK/MAPK cascade is required for memory formation of an inhibitory avoidance training in rats. Here we reported that this learning task is accompanied by a rapid(More)
The synaptic tagging and capture (STC) hypothesis provides a compelling explanation for synaptic specificity and facilitation of long-term potentiation. Its implication on long-term memory (LTM) formation led to postulate the behavioral tagging mechanism. Here we show that a maintenance tagging process may operate in the hippocampus late after acquisition(More)
Learning to avoid threats in the environment is highly adaptive. However, sometimes a dysregulation of fear memories processing may underlie fear-related disorders. Despite recent advances, a major question of how to effectively attenuate persistent fear memories in a safe manner remains unresolved. Here we show experiments employing a behavioural tool to(More)
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