Hayaki Banno

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Visually, we can extract a statistical summary of sets of elements efficiently. However, our visual system has a severe limitation in that the ability to recognize an object is remarkably impaired when it is surrounded by other objects. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the crowding effect obstructs the calculation of the mean size of(More)
Recent studies have sought to determine which levels of categories are processed first in visual scene categorization and have shown that the natural and man-made superordinate-level categories are understood faster than are basic-level categories. The current study examined the robustness of the superordinate-level advantage in a visual scene(More)
We can rapidly and efficiently recognize many types of objects embedded in complex scenes. What information supports this object recognition is a fundamental question for understanding our visual processing. We investigated the eccentricity-dependent role of shape and statistical information for ultrarapid object categorization, using the higher-order(More)
Visually, we can extract a statistical summary of sets of elements efficiently. However, our visual system has a severe limitation in that the ability to recognize an object is remarkably impaired when it is surrounded by other objects. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the crowding effect obstructs the calculation of the mean size of(More)
The effect of parasympathectomy on the electrical and nonelectrical activation of iris smooth muscle cells was examined 7-10 days after ciliary ganglionectomy in order to explore the mechanisms involved in the nonspecific denervation supersensitivity. Resting membrane potential of rat iris sphincter muscle cells was not altered by cholinergic denervation.(More)
In the rat iris sphincter muscle contractile responses to transmural stimulation consisted of two components, a fast cholinergic followed by a slow non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) one. The magnitude of the latter varied widely and was on average 5% of that of the cholinergic component. Exogenous substance P (1 nM-1 microM) produced a(More)
This paper concerns the first measurement of spontaneous electrical activity in the smooth muscle cells of the mammalian iris sphincter. Although the membrane potential was quite stable, at - 59 mV, under physiological conditions in vitro, bursts of rhythmic electrical activity occurred when barium was substituted for all of the calcium in the medium(More)
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