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Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are reported to be porin-type, beta-barrel diffusion pores. They are prominently localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane and are involved in metabolite exchange between the organelle and the cytosol. In this study, we have investigated a family of VDAC isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtVDAC). We have shown(More)
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is recognized as a major environmental pollutant. While Cd responses and toxicities in some plant species have been well established, there are few reports about the effects of short-term exposure to Cd on rice, a model monocotyledonous plant, at the proteome level. To investigate the effect of Cd in rice, we(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) regulates diverse cellular functions by modulating the activities of a variety of enzymes and proteins. However, direct modulation of transcription factors by CaM has been poorly understood. In this study, we isolated a putative transcription factor by screening a rice cDNA expression library by using CaM:horse-radish peroxidase as a probe.(More)
Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, regulates diverse cellular functions by modulating the activity of a variety of proteins. However, little is known about how CaM directly regulates transcription. Screening of an Arabidopsis cDNA expression library using horseradish peroxidase-conjugated calmodulin as a probe identified a(More)
In plant cells, the vacuole functions as a major calcium store. Although a calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase (ACA4) is known to be present in prevacuolar compartments, the presence of an ACA-type Ca2+-ATPase in the mature vacuole of a plant cell has not been verified. Here we provide evidence that ACA11 localizes to the vacuole membrane. ACA11 tagged with(More)
Transcriptional repression of pathogen defense-related genes is essential for plant growth and development. Several proteins are known to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of plant defense responses. However, mechanisms by which expression of defense-related genes are regulated by repressor proteins are poorly characterized. Here, we describe(More)
ZAT11, a Zinc Finger of Arabidopsis Thaliana 11, is a dual-function transcriptional regulator that positively regulates primary root growth but negatively regulates Ni 2+ tolerance. Zinc Finger of Arabidopsis Thaliana 11 (ZAT11) is a C2H2-type zinc finger protein that has been reported to function as an active transcriptional repressor. However, the(More)
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential toxic heavy metal that influences normal growth and development of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms by which plants recognize and respond to Cd remain poorly understood. We show that, in Arabidopsis, Cd activates the mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, in a dose-dependent manner. Following treatment(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key signal transduction molecules, which respond to various external stimuli. The MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) are known to be negative regulators of MAPKs in eukaryotes. We screened an Arabidopsis cDNA library using horseradish peroxidase-conjugated calmodulin (CaM), and isolated AtMKP1 as a CaM-binding(More)
C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play diverse roles in plant response to abiotic stresses. ZAT6, an Arabidopsis C(2)H(2)-type ZFP, has been reported to regulate root development and nutrient stress responses. However, its roles in regulation of abiotic stress response are incompletely known. Here, we demonstrate that salt or osmotic stress triggers(More)