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Electron transfer is used as a probe for angstrom-scale structural changes in single protein molecules. In a flavin reductase, the fluorescence of flavin is quenched by a nearby tyrosine residue by means of photo-induced electron transfer. By probing the fluorescence lifetime of the single flavin on a photon-by-photon basis, we were able to observe the(More)
Many enzymes mold their structures to enclose substrates in their active sites such that conformational remodeling may be required during each catalytic cycle. In adenylate kinase (AK), this involves a large-amplitude rearrangement of the enzyme's lid domain. Using our method of high-resolution single-molecule FRET, we directly followed AK's domain(More)
Conformational dynamics of proteins can be interpreted as itinerant motions as the protein traverses from one state to another on a complex network in conformational space or, more generally, in state space. Here we present a scheme to extract a multiscale state space network (SSN) from a single-molecule time series. Analysis by this method enables us to(More)
We present a method for the analysis of optical single molecule emission data that exhibit discrete intensity jumps. This new method uses a generalized likelihood ratio test that determines the location of an intensity change point based on individual photon arrival times. This test is applied recursively to an entire single molecule intensity trajectory,(More)
Time-resolved single molecule fluorescence measurements may be used to probe the conformational dynamics of biological macromolecules. The best time resolution in such techniques will only be achieved by measuring the arrival times of individual photons at the detector. A general approach to the estimation of molecular parameters based on individual photon(More)
The recently developed photon-by-photon approach [H. Yang, X.S. Xie, J. Chem. Phys., 2002 (in press)] for single-molecule fluorescence experiments allows measurements of conformational fluctuation with time resolution on a vast range of time scales. In that method, each photon represents a data point, thereby affording better statistics. Here, we utilize(More)
This work describes noncontact, local temperature measurements using wavelength shifts of CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Individual QDs are demonstrated to be capable of sensing temperature variations and reporting temperature changes remotely through optical readout. Temperature profiles of a microheater under different input voltages are evaluated based on the(More)
One of the difficulties in diffusion-type single-molecule experiments is the determination of signal amid photon-counting noise. A commonly used approach is to further average the noisy time trace by binning, followed by placing a threshold to discriminate signal from background. The choice of smoothing parameters and the placement of the threshold may(More)
Precise measurement of the potential of mean force is necessary for a fundamental understanding of the dynamics and chemical reactivity of a biological macromolecule. The unique advantage provided by the recently developed constant-information approach to analyzing time-dependent single-molecule fluorescence measurements was used with maximum entropy(More)