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Electron transfer is used as a probe for angstrom-scale structural changes in single protein molecules. In a flavin reductase, the fluorescence of flavin is quenched by a nearby tyrosine residue by means of photo-induced electron transfer. By probing the fluorescence lifetime of the single flavin on a photon-by-photon basis, we were able to observe the(More)
Many enzymes mold their structures to enclose substrates in their active sites such that conformational remodeling may be required during each catalytic cycle. In adenylate kinase (AK), this involves a large-amplitude rearrangement of the enzyme's lid domain. Using our method of high-resolution single-molecule FRET, we directly followed AK's domain(More)
Voltammetric microelectrodes and microdialysis probes were used simultaneously to monitor extracellular dopamine in rat striatum during electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Microelectrodes were placed far away (1 mm) from, immediately adjacent to, and at the outlet of microdialysis probes. In drug-naive rats, electrical stimulation (45 Hz,(More)
Conformational dynamics of proteins can be interpreted as itinerant motions as the protein traverses from one state to another on a complex network in conformational space or, more generally, in state space. Here we present a scheme to extract a multiscale state space network (SSN) from a single-molecule time series. Analysis by this method enables us to(More)
We present a method for the analysis of optical single molecule emission data that exhibit discrete intensity jumps. This new method uses a generalized likelihood ratio test that determines the location of an intensity change point based on individual photon arrival times. This test is applied recursively to an entire single molecule intensity trajectory,(More)
Time-resolved single molecule fluorescence measurements may be used to probe the conformational dynamics of biological macromolecules. The best time resolution in such techniques will only be achieved by measuring the arrival times of individual photons at the detector. A general approach to the estimation of molecular parameters based on individual photon(More)
A random-walk simulation of microdialysis is used to examine how a reaction that consumes analyte in the medium external to the probe affects the extraction and recovery processes. The simulations suggest that such a reaction can promote the extraction process while simultaneously inhibiting the recovery process, which appears to be consistent with recent(More)
An approach to capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection (CE-EC) suitable for determination of dopamine in 1-min brain microdialysate samples is described. The CE-EC system includes an electrochemical detection cell that permits easy, precise, and permanent alignment of a carbon fiber microelectrode with a separation capillary (30-micron(More)
This work describes noncontact, local temperature measurements using wavelength shifts of CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Individual QDs are demonstrated to be capable of sensing temperature variations and reporting temperature changes remotely through optical readout. Temperature profiles of a microheater under different input voltages are evaluated based on the(More)
One of the difficulties in diffusion-type single-molecule experiments is the determination of signal amid photon-counting noise. A commonly used approach is to further average the noisy time trace by binning, followed by placing a threshold to discriminate signal from background. The choice of smoothing parameters and the placement of the threshold may(More)