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It is believed that the enhanced capability of activated macrophages to resist infection is related to the remarkable increase in the production of oxygen metabolites in response to phagocytosis. Both the production of H2O2 and the oxidation of NAD(P)H are directly dependent upon NAD(P)H-oxidase. It has been established that the respiratory burst is due to(More)
Azadirachta indica is well known medicinal plant mentioned in ancient herbal texts. It has been extensively used in Ayurvedic, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a luminary of modern medicine. As part of our drug discovery program we isolated azadiradione from the ethanolic extract of seeds of A. indica and evaluated for in-vivo antiulcer(More)
Oxidative stress is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Metallothioneins (MT), cytochrome P450 IIE1 (CYP2E1) and glutathione S-transferases alpha4-4 (GSTA4-4) are involved in oxidative stress-mediated damage. Altered dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) are also documented in PD. The present study was undertaken to(More)
Oxidative stress is one of the major players in the pathogenesis of maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ)-induced disorders. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a glutathione (GSH) precursor and silymarin (SIL), a naturally occurring antioxidant, encounter oxidative stress-mediated cellular damage. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of NAC and SIL against(More)
An association between excessive zinc (Zn) accumulation in brain and incidences of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been shown in several epidemiological and experimental investigations. The involvement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and glutathione (GSH) in the pathogenesis of PD has also been proposed in a few studies. Despite(More)
Experimental studies have shown that toxicant responsive genes, cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a critical role in pesticide-induced toxicity. CYPs play pro-oxidant role and GSTs offer protection in maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ)-induced brain and lung toxicities. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated(More)
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium toxin that causes a variety of toxic effects with symptoms such as diarrhoea and low weight gain. To date, no review has addressed the toxicity of DON in relation to oxidative stress. The focus of this article is primarily intended to summarize the information associated with oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for(More)
Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione-S-transferase A4-4 (GSTA4-4), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are implicated in maneb- and paraquat-induced toxicity leading to various pathological conditions. The study aimed to investigate the role of CYP2E1 in maneb- and paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and(More)
Oxidative stress is implicated in toxicant-induced inflammation leading to chronic diseases. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) offer the first line of defense against infection in the mammals and protect against inflammation-mediated pathological anomalies. Conversely, activated PMNs contribute to the oxidative stress-mediated damage and inflammation. The(More)
Oxidative stress is a key factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and impaired mitochondrion regulate oxidative stress-mediated maneb (MB)- and paraquat (PQ)-induced Parkinsonism. However, their contribution in the MB- and PQ-induced toxicity in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) is still(More)