Hauke Walter

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Viral tropism is the ability of viruses to enter and infect specific host cells and is based on the ability of viruses to bind to receptors on those cells. Testing for HIV tropism is recommended before prescribing a chemokine receptor blocker. In most European countries, HIV tropism is identified with tropism phenotype testing. New data support genotype(More)
Drug resistance testing has been shown to be beneficial for clinical management of HIV type 1 infected patients. Whereas phenotypic assays directly measure drug resistance, the commonly used genotypic assays provide only indirect evidence of drug resistance, the major challenge being the interpretation of the sequence information. We analyzed the(More)
The European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel, established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists, felt that sufficient new information has become available to warrant an update of its recommendations, explained in both pocket guidelines and this full paper. The Panel makes the following recommendations concerning the indications for(More)
Performance of phenotypic assays and replication capacity assays require normalization of virus input. Therefore, quantitation of HIV-1 in supernatants to inoculate cell cultures is an important step. Since the gold standard for the determination of infectivity, the tissue culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) is time-consuming, several other methods are in(More)
BACKGROUND Development of drug resistance is one of the major reasons for the failure of antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1 infection. Knowing the drug sensitivity-resistance profile of viruses present in a patient prior to treatment or change in treatment could help to optimize therapy. OBJECTIVE Development of a rapid standardized phenotypic HIV-1 drug(More)
Therapeutic success of anti-HIV therapies is limited by the development of drug resistant viruses. These genetic variants display complex mutational patterns in their pol gene, which codes for protease and reverse transcriptase, the molecular targets of current antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic resistance testing depends on the ability to interpret such(More)
Human immunodeficiency viruses in 321 samples from tenofovir-naïve patients were retrospectively evaluated for resistance to this nucleotide analogue. All virus strains with insertions between amino acids 67 and 70 of the reverse transcriptase (n = 6) were highly resistant. Virus strains with the Q151M mutation were divided into susceptible (n = 12) and(More)
To determine the influence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD8+ T cells on the development of drug resistance mutations in the HIV-1 protease, we analyzed protease sequences from viruses from a human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA class I)-typed cohort of 94 HIV-1-positive individuals. In univariate statistical analyses (Fisher's(More)
OBJECTIVE The transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 is a major health concern. To date, most clinical studies have relied on sequencing techniques for genotypic analyses which do not allow quantification of minority viral populations below 25%. As minor populations of drug-resistant HIV-1 could impact the efficiency of antiretroviral therapy, this study was(More)
Genotypic and phenotypic resistance of viral reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) was determined for 64 therapy-naive, HIV-1-infected seroconverters of the German Seroconverter Study coordinated by the Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin. The date of seroconversion of patients and the laboratory, clinical, and therapeutic follow-up data were documented.(More)