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Viral tropism is the ability of viruses to enter and infect specific host cells and is based on the ability of viruses to bind to receptors on those cells. Testing for HIV tropism is recommended before prescribing a chemokine receptor blocker. In most European countries, HIV tropism is identified with tropism phenotype testing. New data support genotype(More)
Drug resistance testing has been shown to be beneficial for clinical management of HIV type 1 infected patients. Whereas phenotypic assays directly measure drug resistance, the commonly used genotypic assays provide only indirect evidence of drug resistance, the major challenge being the interpretation of the sequence information. We analyzed the(More)
OBJECTIVE The transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 is a major health concern. To date, most clinical studies have relied on sequencing techniques for genotypic analyses which do not allow quantification of minority viral populations below 25%. As minor populations of drug-resistant HIV-1 could impact the efficiency of antiretroviral therapy, this study was(More)
Human immunodeficiency viruses in 321 samples from tenofovir-naïve patients were retrospectively evaluated for resistance to this nucleotide analogue. All virus strains with insertions between amino acids 67 and 70 of the reverse transcriptase (n = 6) were highly resistant. Virus strains with the Q151M mutation were divided into susceptible (n = 12) and(More)
The development of drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment of HIV infection. The extraordinary replication dynamics of HIV facilitates its escape from selective pressure exerted by the human immune system and by combination drug therapy. We have developed several computational methods whose combined use can support the design of optimal(More)
Performance of phenotypic assays and replication capacity assays require normalization of virus input. Therefore, quantitation of HIV-1 in supernatants to inoculate cell cultures is an important step. Since the gold standard for the determination of infectivity, the tissue culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) is time-consuming, several other methods are in(More)
In order to analyse whether drug sensitivity testing would be beneficial for clinical decision-making in heavily pretreated patients, we retrospectively studied viral genotype and phenotypic drug resistance in 12 HIV-1-infected patients, each of them with a history of failing at least one therapeutic regimen including one or two protease inhibitors (PIs).(More)
BACKGROUND Recently discovered broadly neutralizing antibodies have revitalized hopes of developing a universal vaccine against HIV-1. Mainly responsible for new infections are variants only using CCR5 for cell entry, whereas CXCR4-using variants can become dominant in later infection stages. METHODS We performed a statistical analysis on two different(More)
Therapeutic success of anti-HIV therapies is limited by the development of drug resistant viruses. These genetic variants display complex mutational patterns in their pol gene, which codes for protease and reverse transcriptase, the molecular targets of current antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic resistance testing depends on the ability to interpret such(More)