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The topography and elasticity of living and fixed astrocytes cultured from the rat cerebra were studied quantitatively by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Ridge-like structures reflecting F-actin beneath the cell membrane were prominent in the contact-mode images of living astrocytes. Many of these ridges became unclear after fixation (2% glutaraldehyde). In(More)
In the majority of studies designed to elucidate the causal mechanisms of memory formation, certain members of the experimental cohort, even though subjected to exactly the same conditioning procedures, remember significantly better than others, whereas others show little or no long-term memory (LTM) formation. To begin to address the question of why this(More)
Although the mechanisms of Ca2+ wave propagation in astrocytes induced by mechanical stimulation have been well studied, it is still not known how the [Ca2+]i increases in the stimulated cells. Here, we have analyzed the mechanisms of [Ca2+]i increase in single, isolated astrocytes. Our results showed that there was an autocrine mechanism of Ca2+ regulation(More)
Previous experiments showed that the expression and phosphorylation levels of cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB) are important factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation. The present study was designed to determine whether CREB phosphorylation advances oligodendrocyte differentiation or vice versa and to identify the protein(More)
Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis has been widely used as a model for gaining an understanding of the molecular and behavioral mechanisms underlying learning and memory. At the behavioral level, however, it is still unclear how taste discrimination and CTA interact. We thus examined how CTA to one taste affected the(More)
Astrocytes are connected by gap junctions, which provide intercellular pathways that allow a direct exchange of ions and small metabolites including second messengers and the propagation of electric currents. The roles of gap junctional communication on whole-cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and intercellular communication in astrocytes are not(More)
We have isolated and characterized the cDNAs for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) from the terrestrial slug Limax marginatus, and examined the presence and distribution of their mRNAs in the central nervous system using histological techniques and a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. Our results showed that(More)
Recent studies have shown that astrocytes release various transmitters including glutamate and thus directly affect synaptic neurotransmission. The mechanisms involved in the release of glutamate from astrocytes remain unclear, however. In the present study, we examined differences in 1) the amount of glutamate released, 2) the appearance of exocytosis, and(More)
A transcription factor, cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which is phosphorylated by protein kinases (PKA and PKC), is known to be involved in the regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation. However, it is still unclear whether protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) are used simultaneously or at different time points to(More)
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