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The Cre/lox system is widely used in mice to achieve cell-type-specific gene expression. However, a strong and universally responding system to express genes under Cre control is still lacking. We have generated a set of Cre reporter mice with strong, ubiquitous expression of fluorescent proteins of different spectra. The robust native fluorescence of these(More)
Humans and other animals must often make decisions on the basis of imperfect evidence. Statisticians use measures such as P values to assign degrees of confidence to propositions, but little is known about how the brain computes confidence estimates about decisions. We explored this issue using behavioural analysis and neural recordings in rats in(More)
Fluorescent calcium indicator proteins, such as GCaMP3, allow imaging of activity in genetically defined neuronal populations. GCaMP3 can be expressed using various gene delivery methods, such as viral infection or electroporation. However, these methods are invasive and provide inhomogeneous and nonstationary expression. Here, we developed a genetic(More)
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans migrates toward a preferred temperature on a thermal gradient. A candidate neural network for thermotaxis in C. elegans has been identified, but the behavioral strategy implemented by this network is poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether thermal migration is achieved by modulating the probability of turning(More)
While it is commonly assumed that decisions taken slowly result in superior outcomes, is it possible that optimal decision making does not always require sacrificing speed? For odor categorization decisions, it was previously shown that rats use <300 ms regardless of difficulty, but these findings could be interpreted as a tradeoff of accuracy for speed.(More)
The habenular complex in the epithalamus consists of distinct regions with diverse neuronal populations. Past studies have suggested a role for the habenula in voluntary exercise motivation and reinforcement of intracranial self-stimulation but have not assigned these effects to specific habenula subnuclei. Here, we have developed a genetic model in which(More)
The putative excitatory and inhibitory cell classes within the mouse primary visual cortex V1 have different functional properties as studied using recording microelectrode. Excitatory neurons show high selectivity for the orientation angle of moving gratings while the putative inhibitory neurons show poor selectivity. However, the study of selectivity of(More)
Olfactory adaptation, characterized by attenuation of response to repeated odor stimulations or continuous odor exposure, is an intrinsic feature of olfactory processing. Adaptation can be induced by either "synaptic depression" due to depletion of neurotransmitters, or "enhanced inhibition" onto principle neurons by local inhibitory interneurons in(More)
Humans and other animals must often make decisions on the basis of imperfect evidence 1,2. Statisticians use measures such as P values to assign degrees of confidence to propositions, but little is known about how the brain computes confidence estimates about decisions. We explored this issue using behavioural analysis and neural recordings in rats in(More)
Cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO) as a contrast agent was used to investigate olfactory processing in rats. fMRI data were acquired in sixteen 0.75-mm coronal slices covering the olfactory bulb (OB) and higher olfactory regions (HOR), including the anterior olfactory nucleus and piriform cortex.(More)
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