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We present an enhanced method to form stable dispersions of medium-sized silicon nanoparticles for solar cell applications by thermally induced grafting of acrylic acid to the nanoparticle surface. In order to confirm their covalent attachment on the silicon nanoparticles and to assess the quality of the functionalization, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy… (More)
The paper describes a simple scheme enabling the real-time characterization of fluctuations, e.g., of the conductance in scanning tunneling microscopy. The technique can be used in parallel to other data acquisition, evaluating the rate, the amplitude, and the duty cycle of telegraphic noise in the tunneling current. This kind of scanning probe microscopy… (More)
The experiments were performed with a home-built low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (lt-stm) operating at 7 K using a liquid helium flow cryostat (Helitran lt-3b). The setup is similar to the combined afm/stm described by Wintjes et al. .
The organic molecule 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) was studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on thin insulating NaCl films grown on a Cu(111) single crystal. The deposition of approximately two monolayers (ML) of sodium chloride onto a Cu(111) substrate at a sample temperature of about 350 K causes a rather rough… (More)
Although noise is observed in many experiments, it is rarely used as a source of information. However, valuable information can be extracted from noisy signals. The motion of particles on a surface induced, for example, by thermal activation or by the interaction with the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope may lead to fluctuations or switching of the… (More)