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A review of the state of knowledge on nanocapsules prepared from preformed polymers as active substances carriers is presented. This entails a general review of the different preparation methods: nanoprecipitation, emulsion-diffusion, double emulsification, emulsion-coacervation, polymer-coating and layer-by-layer, from the point of view of the(More)
The use of skin as an alternative route for administering systemically active drugs has attracted considerable interest in recent years. However, the skin provides an excellent barrier, which limits the number of drug molecules suitable for transdermal delivery. Thus, in order to improve cutaneous delivery, it is necessary to adopt an enhancement method,(More)
Freeze-drying has been considered as a good technique to improve the long-term stability of colloidal nanoparticles. The poor stability in an aqueous medium of these systems forms a real barrier against the clinical use of nanoparticles. This article reviews the state of the art of freeze-drying nanoparticles. It discusses the most important parameters that(More)
Encapsulation using nanoparticulate systems is an increasingly implemented strategy in drug targeting and delivery. Such systems have also been proposed for topical administration to enhance percutaneous transport into and across the skin barrier. However, the mechanism by which such particulate formulations facilitate skin transport remains ambiguous. In(More)
Nano-emulsions consist of fine oil-in-water dispersions, having droplets covering the size range of 100-600 nm. In the present work, nano-emulsions were prepared using the spontaneous emulsification mechanism which occurs when an organic phase and an aqueous phase are mixed. The organic phase is an homogeneous solution of oil, lipophilic surfactant and(More)
Purpose. To determine whether and how encapsulation of lipophilic compounds in polymeric nanoparticles is able to improve topical delivery to the skin. Methods. The penetration of octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC; Parsol MCX), a highly lipophilic sunscreen, into and across porcine ear skin in vitro was investigated, subsequent to encapsulation in(More)
The recent developments of nuclear medicine in oncology have involved numerous investigations of novel specific tumor-targeting radiopharmaceuticals as a major area of interest for both cancer imaging and therapy. The current progress in pharmaceutical nanotechnology field has been exploited in the design of tumor-targeting nanoscale and microscale carriers(More)
Oral drug delivery is the preferred route of administration of drugs. Because of their versatility, nanoparticles often have been investigated for the delivery of a wide number of drugs by this route. This article first examines the physicochemical, pharmaceutical and technological aspects that make nanoparticles a potential oral delivery system for drugs(More)
Vitamin E or α-tocopherol is widely used as a strong antioxidant in many medical and cosmetic applications, but is rapidly degraded, because of its light, heat and oxygen sensitivity. In this study, we applied the nanoprecipitation method to prepare vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules, at laboratory-scale and pilot-scale. We scaled-up the preparation of(More)
The lack of information related to the scaling-up of technologies used for preparing polymeric nanoparticles (NP) might hinder the introduction of these colloidal carriers into the pharmaceutical market. In the present study, the scale-up of ibuprofen-loaded NP produced by three manufacturing processes--salting-out, emulsification-diffusion and(More)