Hatch W Stokes

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The vast majority of bacteria in the environment have yet to be cultured. Consequently, a major proportion of both genetic diversity within known gene families and an unknown number of novel gene families reside in these uncultured organisms. Isolation of these genes is limited by lack of sequence information. Where such sequence data exist, PCR directed at(More)
When human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seropositive donors are injected intraperitoneally into SCID mice, EBV+ B cell tumors develop within weeks. A preliminary report (Mosier, D. E., R. J. Gulizia, S. M. Baird, D. D. Richman, D. B. Wilson, R. I. Fox, and T. J. Kipps, 1989. Blood. 74(Suppl. 1):52a) has suggested that(More)
By targeting gene cassettes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) directly from environmentally derived DNA, we are able to amplify entire open reading frames (ORFs) independently of prior sequence knowledge. Approximately 10% of the mobile genes recovered by these means can be attributed to known protein families. Here we describe the characterization of two(More)
BACKGROUND The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron(More)
In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach(More)
BACKGROUND Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) is a major contributor to bacterial evolution and up to 25% of a bacterium's genome may have been acquired by this process over evolutionary periods of time. Successful LGT requires both the physical transfer of DNA and its successful incorporation into the host cell. One system that contributes to this latter step by(More)
BACKGROUND The integron is a genetic recombination system that catalyses the acquisition of genes on mobilisable elements called gene cassettes. In Vibrio species, multiple acquired gene cassettes form a cassette array that can comprise 1-3% of the bacterial genome. Since 75% of these gene cassettes contain genes encoding proteins of uncharacterised(More)
Mobile gene cassettes captured within integron arrays encompass a vast and diverse pool of genetic novelty. In most cases, functional annotation of gene cassettes directly recovered by cassette-PCR is obscured by their characteristically high sequence novelty. This inhibits identification of those specific functions or biological features that might(More)
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