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cGMP is a second messenger that produces its effects by interacting with intracellular receptor proteins. In smooth muscle cells, one of the major receptors for cGMP is the serine/threonine protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). PKG has been shown to catalyze the phosphorylation of a number of physiologically relevant proteins whose function(More)
This basic science review examines the role of cGMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. The first such studies suggested a role for nitric oxide (NO) and atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP), and the downstream second messenger cGMP, in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Subsequently,(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role as a cell-signalling molecule, anti-infective agent and, as most recently recognised, an antioxidant. The metabolic fate of NO gives rise to a further series of compounds, collectively known as the reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which possess their own unique characteristics. In this review we discuss this(More)
The T-type Ca2+ channel Cav3.1 subunit is present in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs), but not in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). The present study sought to assess the role of Cav3.1 in thrombin-induced Weibel-Palade body exocytosis and consequent von Willebrand factor (VWF) release. In PMVECs and PAECs transduced with a green(More)
Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I plays a pivotal role in regulating smooth muscle cell relaxation, growth, and differentiation. Expression of the enzyme varies greatly in smooth muscle and in other tissues and cell types, yet little is known regarding the mechanisms regulating cGMP-dependent protein kinase gene expression. The present work was(More)
NO and cGMP have antigrowth and anti-inflammatory effects on the vessel wall in response to injury. It is well established that after vascular injury proinflammatory cytokines are involved in vascular wall remodeling. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the signaling mechanisms involved in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) suppression by(More)
cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) expression is highly variable and decreases in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), exposure of cells to nitric oxide (NO), or in response to balloon catheter injury in vivo. In this study, the mechanisms of human type I PKG-alpha (PKG-Ialpha) gene expression were examined. Three structurally unrelated NO donors(More)
Endothelium dysfunction with severe pulmonary hypertension may occur after total cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in infants as a result of a widespread inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to separate out the effects of lung ischemia-reperfusion from membrane oxygenator-induced activation of leukocytes on the function and viability of the pulmonary(More)
BACKGROUND Non-heartbeating-donor (NHBD) lung transplantation could help reduce the current organ shortage. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activation plays a pivotal role in ischemia-reperfusion injury (I-R), and can be inhibited by nitric oxide (NO). We hypothesized that inhaled NO might be beneficial in NHBD lung transplantation. METHODS The effect(More)
Although the regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) gene expression by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is now recognized, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. In this study, we report that PKG-I stimulates myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)-dependent gene expression in vascular SMCs. The expression of PKG in PKG-deficient(More)