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BACKGROUND Trachoma, an infectious disease of the conjunctiva caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is an important global cause of blindness. A dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis during the processes of tissue repair following infection and inflammation are thought to play a key role in the development of fibrotic sequelae of infection, which(More)
Trachoma, an infectious disease of the conjunctiva caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, causes scarring and blindness in some infected individuals but not others. In an African community where trachoma is endemic, we have previously identified an IL10 haplotype that is associated with increased risk of scarring complications. Here we examine the hypothesis that(More)
OBJECTIVES Urban areas are traditionally excluded from trachoma surveillance activities, but due to rapid expansion and population growth, the urban area of Brikama in The Gambia may be developing social problems that are known risk factors for trachoma. It is also a destination for many migrants who may be introducing active trachoma into the area. This(More)
Experimental evidence implicates interferon gamma (IFNgamma) in protection from and resolution of chlamydial infection. Conversely, interleukin 10 (IL10) is associated with susceptibility and persistence of infection and pathology. We studied genetic variation within the IL10 and IFNgamma loci in relation to the risk of developing severe complications of(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is thought to be a key mediator of the inflammatory and fibrotic response to Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection. A large matched-pair case-control study investigated putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region, including TNF and its immediate(More)
BACKGROUND Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, remains the leading infectious cause of blindness and in 2002 was responsible for 3.6% of total global blindness. Although transmission can be successfully interrupted using antibiotics and improvements in public and personal hygiene, the long-term success of the control programmes(More)
Ocular chlamydial disease is clinically diagnosed by the appearance of characteristic inflammatory changes and development of lymphoid follicles in the conjunctiva. Nucleic acid amplification tests and relatively non-invasive methods of sampling the conjunctival surface can be used to quantify the expression of chlamydial and host genes. Using quantitative(More)
BACKGROUND Chlamydia trachomatis is globally the predominant infectious cause of blindness and one of the most common bacterial causes of sexually transmitted infection. Infections of the conjunctiva cause the blinding disease trachoma, an immuno-pathological disease that is characterised by chronic conjunctival inflammation and fibrosis. The polymorphic(More)
PURPOSE Several genes that are associated with protection from or susceptibility to trachomatous trichiasis (TT) have been identified through genetic association studies. Yet there have been few studies in which gene expression profiles were assessed in TT cases and disease-free controls. The purpose was to identify genes that are differentially expressed(More)
Trachoma, a chronic keratoconjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is the world's commonest infectious cause of blindness. Blindness is due to progressive scarring of the conjunctiva (trachomatous scarring) leading to in-turning of eyelashes (trichiasis) and corneal opacification. We evaluated the contribution of genetic variation across the(More)