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Conventional time-delay estimators exhibit dramatic performance degradations in the presence of multipath signals. This limits their application in reverberant enclosures, particularly when the signal of interest is speech and it may not possible to estimate and compensate for channel effects prior to time-delay estimation. This paper details an alternative(More)
Electronically steerable arrays of microphones have a variety of uses in speech data acquisition systems. Applications include teleconferencing, speech recognition and speaker identiication, sound capture in adverse environments, and biomedical devices for the hearing impaired. An array of microphones has a number of advantages over a single-microphone(More)
In most microphone array applications, it is essential to localize sources in a noisy, reverberant environment. It has been shown that computing the steered response power(SRP) is more robust than faster, two-stage, direct time-difference of arrival methods. The problem with computing SRP is that the SRP space has many local maxima and thus(More)
The linear intersection (LI) estimator, a closed-form method for the localization of source positions given sensor array time-delay estimate information, is presented. The LI estimator is shown to be robust and accurate, to closely model the search-based ML estimator, and to outperform a benchmark algorithm. The computational complexity of the LI estimator(More)
A method for tracking the positional estimates of multiple talkers in the operating region of an acoustic microphone array is presented. Initial talker location estimates are provided by a time-delay-based localization algorithm. These raw estimates are spatially smoothed by a Kalman lter derived from a set of potential source motion models. Data(More)
Typically, parameter estimation for a hidden Markov model (HMM) is performed using an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm with the maximum-likelihood (ML) criterion. The EM algorithm is an iterative scheme which is well-deened and numerically stable, but convergence may require a large number of iterations. For speech recognition systems utilizing large(More)
—Large-aperture microphone arrays have the potential for providing quality speech acquisition from multiple talkers over a large focal area for such applications as teleconferencing and speech-recognition input. The cost of computing is rapidly approaching the point at which these arrays will be practical in many common environments. However, an important(More)
Two new methods for locating multiple sound sources using a single segment of data from a large-aperture microphone array are presented. Both methods employ the proven-robust steered response power using the phase transform (SRP-PHAT) as a functional. To cluster the data points into highly probable regions containing global peaks, the first method fits a(More)