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Staphylococcus belongs to the Gram-positive low G + C content group of the Firmicutes division of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, and has developed important multidrug resistant forms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Staphylococcus simiae was isolated from(More)
Defining bacterial species and understanding the relative cohesiveness of different components of their genomes remains a fundamental problem in microbiology. Bacterial species tend to be comprised of both a set of core and dispensable genes, with the sum of these two components forming the species pan-genome. The role of the core and dispensable genes in(More)
To determine whether different racial groups shared common types of vaginal microbiota, we characterized the composition and structure of vaginal bacterial communities in asymptomatic and apparently healthy Japanese women in Tokyo, Japan, and compared them with those of White and Black women from North America. The composition of vaginal communities was(More)
Synonymous codon usage varies both between organisms and among genes within a genome, and arises due to differences in G + C content, replication strand skew, or gene expression levels. Correspondence analysis (CA) is widely used to identify major sources of variation in synonymous codon usage among genes and provides a way to identify horizontally(More)
The self-transmissible, broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid pMOL98 was previously isolated from polluted soil using a triparental plasmid capture approach and shown to possess a replicon similar to that of the BHR plasmids pSB102 and pIPO2. Here, complete sequence analysis and comparative genomics reveal that the 55.5 kb nucleotide sequence of pMOL98 shows(More)
Tyrosinase (monophenol, 3,4-dihydroxy L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA):oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) was isolated from fruit bodies of Pholiota nameko and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular weight of 42,000 and contained 1.9 copper atoms per molecule. The N-terminal of the purified enzyme could not be detected by(More)
The mature form of l-phenylalanine oxidase (PAOpt) from Pseudomonas sp. P-501 was generated and activated by the proteolytic cleavage of a noncatalytic proenzyme (proPAO). The crystal structures of proPAO, PAOpt, and the PAOpt-o-amino benzoate (AB) complex were determined at 1.7, 1.25, and 1.35A resolutions, respectively. The structure of proPAO suggests(More)
Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple(More)
Plasmids are ubiquitous mobile elements that serve as a pool of many host beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities. To understand the importance of plasmids in horizontal gene transfer, we need to gain insight into the 'evolutionary history' of these plasmids, i.e. the range of hosts in which they have evolved. Since(More)
The overall architecture of IncP-1 plasmids is very conserved in that the accessory genes are typically located in one or two specific regions: between oriV and trfA and between the tra and trb operons. Various hypotheses have been formulated to explain this, but none have been tested experimentally. We investigated whether this structural similarity is due(More)