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The self-transmissible, broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid pMOL98 was previously isolated from polluted soil using a triparental plasmid capture approach and shown to possess a replicon similar to that of the BHR plasmids pSB102 and pIPO2. Here, complete sequence analysis and comparative genomics reveal that the 55.5 kb nucleotide sequence of pMOL98 shows(More)
Defining bacterial species and understanding the relative cohesiveness of different components of their genomes remains a fundamental problem in microbiology. Bacterial species tend to be comprised of both a set of core and dispensable genes, with the sum of these two components forming the species pan-genome. The role of the core and dispensable genes in(More)
Staphylococcus belongs to the Gram-positive low G + C content group of the Firmicutes division of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, and has developed important multidrug resistant forms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Staphylococcus simiae was isolated from(More)
To determine whether different racial groups shared common types of vaginal microbiota, we characterized the composition and structure of vaginal bacterial communities in asymptomatic and apparently healthy Japanese women in Tokyo, Japan, and compared them with those of White and Black women from North America. The composition of vaginal communities was(More)
Synonymous codon usage varies both between organisms and among genes within a genome, and arises due to differences in G + C content, replication strand skew, or gene expression levels. Correspondence analysis (CA) is widely used to identify major sources of variation in synonymous codon usage among genes and provides a way to identify horizontally(More)
Lactobacilli are found in a wide variety of habitats. Four species, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. iners, and L. jensenii, are common and abundant in the human vagina and absent from other habitats. These may be adapted to the vagina and possess characteristics enabling them to thrive in that environment. Furthermore, stable codominance of multiple(More)
The mature form of l-phenylalanine oxidase (PAOpt) from Pseudomonas sp. P-501 was generated and activated by the proteolytic cleavage of a noncatalytic proenzyme (proPAO). The crystal structures of proPAO, PAOpt, and the PAOpt-o-amino benzoate (AB) complex were determined at 1.7, 1.25, and 1.35A resolutions, respectively. The structure of proPAO suggests(More)
Despite the important contribution of self-transmissible plasmids to bacterial evolution, little is understood about the range of hosts in which these plasmids have evolved. Our goal was to infer this so-called evolutionary host range. The nucleotide composition, or genomic signature, of plasmids is often similar to that of the chromosome of their current(More)
Bacterial plasmids are extra-chromosomal genetic elements that code for a wide variety of phenotypes in their bacterial hosts and are maintained in bacterial communities through both vertical and horizontal transfer. Current mathematical models of plasmid-bacteria dynamics, based almost exclusively on mass-action differential equations that describe these(More)
Plasmids are ubiquitous mobile elements that serve as a pool of many host beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities. To understand the importance of plasmids in horizontal gene transfer, we need to gain insight into the 'evolutionary history' of these plasmids, i.e. the range of hosts in which they have evolved. Since(More)