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In a blinded experiment, we report the first allelic association of the dopamine D2 receptor gene in alcoholism. From 70 brain samples of alcoholics and nonalcoholics, DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases and probed with a clone that contained the entire 3' coding exon, the polyadenylation signal, and approximately 16.4 kilobases of noncoding 3'(More)
Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, -2, and -3) mediate the accumulation of transmitter glutamate into synaptic vesicles in glutamatergic neurons. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are more reliable glutamatergic neuron markers, since VGLUT3 also exists in other neuron types. To study whether the dopaminergic neuron uses glutamate as a cotransmitter, we analyzed(More)
We have analyzed expression of a gene encoding a brain-specific Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter (DNPI), which was recently cloned from human brain, in rat forebrain using in situ hybridization. The expression of DNPI mRNA showed a widespread but highly heterogeneous pattern of distribution in the forebrain, where hybridization signals were(More)
The mechanism by which glucocorticoids induce GH expression between embryonic days 18 and 19 (E18-19) in the fetal rat pituitary gland was examined with an in vitro organ culture system. Twenty-four hour incubation of E18 pituitary glands in serum-free medium containing either dexamethasone (DEX, 5-50 nM) or corticosterone (0.55 microM) resulted in a(More)
Distribution and development of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) mRNA expression in rat brain and pituitary gland were examined using ribonuclease protection assay. In adult male rats, GHS-R mRNA levels were highest in the pituitary gland, whereas those in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were 57 and 30% of those in the pituitary gland,(More)
The spontaneous dwarf rat (SDR) is an experimental model for pituitary dwarfism with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. In the pituitary of the SDR, neither GH cells nor GH protein were detected by immunological methods, but SDR pituitary has a very small amount of GH mRNA. In the present study the effects of GH-releasing factor and an analog of(More)
The regulation of growth hormone (GH) cell development by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones in the fetal rat pituitary gland was examined. Dexamethasone (Dex) treatment of dams induced GH and GH mRNA accumulation in the fetal pituitary gland on day 17 or 18 of gestation when substantial GH expression has not yet occurred in the control fetus. The(More)
Regulation of GH-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was studied, with the ribonuclease protection assay, in the fetal rat pituitary gland and in MtT-S clonal cells. GHRH-R mRNA was first detected on embryonic day (E)19 and increased rapidly thereafter, to reach a maximum at E21. Incubation of E17 or E18 pituitaries with 50(More)
We studied by immunohistochemistry the distribution of differentiation-associated sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) cotransporter (DNPI) in the rat forebrain, in comparison with brain-specific cotransporter (BNPI). DNPI-staining was principally seen in axonal synaptic terminals which showed a widespread but discrete pattern of distribution different(More)
Expression and cellular localization of vesicular glutamate transporters (BNPI and DNPI) were studied in the rat retina. RT-PCR showed expression of both transporter mRNAs. hybridization demonstrated BNPI mRNA signals in the inner segments of photoreceptors and the inner nuclear layer, whereas DNPI mRNA signals were confined to the ganglion cell layer.(More)