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This retrospective review evaluated records of cerebrospinal fluid samples between 2000 and 2008 at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Of the 7501 cerebrospinal fluid samples reviewed, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 125) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 60) were the most common bacteria cultured. There were also 1018 cryptococcal and 44(More)
Few studies have compared the programmatic effectiveness of the recommended strategies of antenatal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We prospectively followed infants (93% formula fed) whose mothers who took either HAART (258 infants) or zidovudine (170 infants) during pregnancy in(More)
Botswana has made substantial progress towards malaria elimination across the country. This work assessed interventions and epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Botswana, during a period of decreasing transmission intensity. National passive malaria surveillance data for five years (2008–2012) were analysed. A district-level, random effects model(More)
BACKGROUND Botswana introduced monovalent G1P rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in July 2012, providing one of the first opportunities to assess the effectiveness of routine RV1 vaccination in a high-burden setting in Africa. We sought to determine the effectiveness of RV1 against rotavirus diarrhea hospitalization using a case-control evaluation. METHODS Vaccine(More)
BACKGROUND Prophylactic cotrimoxazole is recommended for infants born to HIV-infected mothers. However, cotrimoxazole may increase the risk of severe anemia or neutropenia. METHODS We compared the proportion of HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants experiencing incident severe anemia (and separately, severe neutropenia) between a prospective cohort(More)
Clinical mentoring by providers skilled in HIV management has been identified as a cornerstone of scaling-up antiretroviral treatment in Africa, particularly in settings where expertise is limited. However, little data exist on its effectiveness and impact on improving the quality-of-care and clinical outcomes, especially for HIV-infected children. Since(More)
Botswana significantly reduced its malaria burden between 2000 and 2012. Incidence dropped from 0.99 to 0.01 % and deaths attributed to malaria declined from 12 to 3. The country initiated elimination strategies in October 2012. We examine the progress and challenges during implementation and identify future needs for a successful program in Botswana. A(More)
Inappropriate antimicrobial drug use is well described for hospitalized patients in the United States. Antibiotic use in hospitals in developing countries is less well documented. We evaluated the antibiotics prescribed to 91 pediatric inpatients in Botswana. The results showed that the duration of prescribed therapy can be excessive. Recommendations for(More)
BACKGROUND Failure to thrive (FTT) is a sign of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We assessed TB and HIV prevalence in children with FTT at one clinic in Botswana. METHODS In July 2010, we screened all children attending a 'Well Child' clinic for FTT. Children with FTT were referred to a paediatrician who: (i) assessed(More)