Haruhisa Okawa

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Why do vertebrates use rods and cones that hyperpolarize, when in insect eyes a single depolarizing photoreceptor can function at all light levels? We answer this question at least in part with a comprehensive assessment of ATP consumption for mammalian rods from voltages and currents and recently published physiological and biochemical data. In darkness,(More)
TRPM4 is a Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation channel that regulates membrane potential in response to intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. In lymphocytes it plays an essential role in shaping the pattern of intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations that lead to cytokine secretion. To better understand its role in this and other physiological processes, we(More)
Understanding a sensory system implies the ability to predict responses to a variety of inputs from a common model. In the retina, this includes predicting how the integration of signals across visual space shapes the outputs of retinal ganglion cells. Existing models of this process generalize poorly to predict responses to new stimuli. This failure arises(More)
Members of the R7 family of the regulators of G-protein signaling (R7 RGS) proteins form multi-subunit complexes that play crucial roles in processing the light responses of retinal neurons. The disruption of these complexes has been shown to lead to the loss of temporal resolution in retinal photoreceptors and deficient synaptic transmission to downstream(More)
Complexes of regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins with G-protein beta5 (Gbeta5) subunits are essential components of signaling pathways that regulate the temporal characteristics of light-evoked responses in vertebrate retinal photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells. Recent studies have found that RGS/Gbeta5 complexes bind to a new family of adapter(More)
Structure and function are highly correlated in the vertebrate retina, a sensory tissue that is organized into cell layers with microcircuits working in parallel and together to encode visual information. All vertebrate retinas share a fundamental plan, comprising five major neuronal cell classes with cell body distributions and connectivity arranged in(More)
The high sensitivity of scotopic vision depends on the efficient retinal processing of single photon responses generated by individual rod photoreceptors. At the first synapse in the mammalian retina, rod outputs are pooled by a rod "ON" bipolar cell, which uses a G-protein signaling cascade to enhance the fidelity of the single photon response under(More)
Excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the CNS are distinguished by several features, including morphology, transmitter content, and synapse architecture [1]. Such distinctions are exemplified in the vertebrate retina. Retinal bipolar cells are polarized glutamatergic neurons receiving direct photoreceptor input, whereas amacrine cells are usually monopolar(More)
Across the nervous system, neurons form highly stereotypic patterns of synaptic connections that are designed to serve specific functions. Mature wiring patterns are often attained upon the refinement of early, less precise connectivity. Much work has led to the prevailing view that many developing circuits are sculpted by activity-dependent competition(More)
Neurons receive input from diverse afferents but form stereotypic connections with each axon type to execute their precise functions. Developmental mechanisms that specify the connectivity of individual axons across populations of converging afferents are not well-understood. Here, we untangled the contributions of activity-dependent and independent(More)