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It is suggested that atopic dermatitis is a skin disease associated with itching as subjective symptoms, and histamine H(1) receptor antagonists are used in order to prevent the itching, and the deterioration for scratch by itching. Histamine H(1) receptor selective anti-histamine olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine; Allelock shows consistent efficacy(More)
We employed an ex vivo [(3)H]rolipram binding experiment to elucidate the mechanism of emetic activity of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors. In Suncus murinus (an insectivore used for evaluation of emesis), emetic potential as well as ability to occupy the high-affinity rolipram binding site in brain membrane fraction in vivo were determined for(More)
We investigated pharmacological characteristics of the itch-associated response to chronic dermatitis induced by 4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one (oxazolone) repeated application in mice. Application of an oxazolone challenge to mice with oxazolone-induced chronic dermatitis evoked severe and transient scratching behavior for up to 1h.(More)
Epidermal keratinocytes with atopic dermatitis (AD) overproduce mediators such as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which are associated with pathology of AD. We found that peptidoglycan (PGN) of Staphylococcus aureus, which is frequently observed in lesion with AD, induced the production of numerous mediators such as GM-CSF and(More)
Prostaglandin (PG) D2, a major cyclooxygenase metabolite generated from immunologically stimulated mast cells, is known to induce activation and chemotaxis in eosinophils, basophils, and T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes via a newly identified PGD2 receptor, chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2). CRTH2 is hypothesized to(More)
BACKGROUND The model of chronic dermatitis caused by repeated application of hapten is frequently used as a tool for assessment of the efficacy of a compound or the elucidation of chronic dermatitis. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to provide more detailed analysis of the model of chronic dermatitis caused by repeated application of(More)
A marked proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in joints leads to pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various kinds of cytokines are produced in the pannus. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors in a new animal model for the evaluation of pannus formation and cytokine production in the(More)
Due to the broad anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors, it has been proposed that PDE4 inhibitors might be efficacious for skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis. KF66490 is a newly developed PDE4 inhibitor that inhibits PDE4B (IC(50)=220 nM) and the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by mouse(More)
Inhibitors of PDE4 (cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase) induce side effects, including nausea and emesis, that limit their therapeutic potential. We investigated the function of two catalytically active conformations of PDE4 (a low-affinity conformer detected by conventional cAMP hydrolytic activity and a high-affinity conformer detected by [(3)H]rolipram(More)