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Odor discrimination times and their dependence on stimulus similarity were evaluated to test temporal and spatial models of odor representation in mice. In a go/no-go operant conditioning paradigm, discrimination accuracy and time were determined for simple monomolecular odors and binary mixtures of odors. Mice discriminated simple odors with an accuracy(More)
We explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of odor-evoked activity in the rat and mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB) using voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with a new probe. The high temporal resolution of VSDI revealed odor-specific sequences of glomerular activation. Increasing odor concentrations reduced response latencies, increased response amplitudes,(More)
Odorants are first represented in the brain by distributed patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb (OB). Although neurons downstream of sensory inputs respond to odorants with temporally structured activity, sensory inputs to glomeruli are typically described as static maps. Here, we imaged the temporal dynamics of receptor neuron input to the OB with a(More)
Although oscillations in membrane potential are a prominent feature of sensory, motor, and cognitive function, their precise role in signal processing remains elusive. Here we show, using a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and theoretical approaches, that both synaptically and intrinsically generated membrane potential oscillations dramatically improve(More)
In the vertebrate brain external stimuli are often represented in distinct functional domains distributed across the cortical surface. Fast imaging techniques used to measure patterns of population activity record movies with many pixels and many frames, i.e., data sets with high dimensionality. Here we demonstrate that principal component analysis (PCA)(More)
The olfactory system encodes information about molecules by spatiotemporal patterns of activity across distributed populations of neurons and extracts information from these patterns to control specific behaviors. Recent studies used in vivo recordings, optogenetics, and other methods to analyze the mechanisms by which odor information is encoded and(More)
Input patterns to the olfactory bulb are dynamic and change in an odor-specific manner as measured by selective calcium imaging of olfactory bulb input. To our knowledge, none of the published models of olfactory bulb function uses dynamic input patterns. Therefore we tested how dynamic input alters the behavior of a simple model consisting of two layers.(More)
Segmentation of functional parts in image series of functional activity is a common problem in neuroscience. Here we apply regularized non-negative matrix factorization (rNMF) to extract glomeruli in intrinsic optical signal (IOS) images of the olfactory bulb. Regularization allows us to incorporate prior knowledge about the spatio-temporal characteristics(More)
A recent paper published by Kimchi, Xu, and Dulac in Nature describes the emergence of male-type sexual behavior in female mice following incapacitation of the accessory olfactory system. The authors argue that this implies a default male-type behavioral pattern that is otherwise constantly inhibited in the female brain by chemical signals transduced in the(More)
Mitral and tufted cells (MTCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb are connected via dendrodendritic synapses with inhibitory interneurons in the external plexiform layer. The range, spatial layout, and temporal properties of inhibitory interactions between MTCs mediated by inhibitory interneurons remain unclear. Therefore, we tested for inhibitory interactions(More)
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