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There is evidence for two types of sleep spindle activity, one with a frequency of about 12 cycles/s (cps) and the other of about 14 cps. Visual examination indicates that both spindle types occur independently, whereby the 12-cps spindles are more pronounced in the frontal and the 14-cps spindles in the parietal region. The purpose of this paper is to(More)
Shortened latency of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a feature frequently observed in depressed patients. Three hypotheses on the origin of early REM sleep episodes propose that short REM latency is due to (1) a phase-shift of one subset of the circadian rhythms relative to other circadian rhythms, (2) a loss of inhibition of REM sleep due to a slow wave(More)
We investigated the characteristics of periodic leg movements (PLM) during nocturnal sleep and wakefulness in 13 drug-free patients presenting with the restless legs syndrome (RLS, n = 9) or with isolated PLM (n = 4). Eight-hour polygraphic sleep recordings included the electromyogram (EMG) of both tibialis anterior muscles. Scoring of leg movements was(More)
Awakening is a crucial event for the organism. The transition from sleep to waking implies physiological processes which lead to a new behavioural state. Spontaneous awakenings have varying features which may change as a function of several factors. The latter include intrasleep architecture, circadian phase, time awake, age, or disordered sleep. Despite(More)
Daytime tiredness or sleepiness and deficits in cognitive performance are common complaints in sleep disordered patients. Till now there are few studies comparing patients from different diagnostic groups of sleep disorders in the same experimental protocol. We studied the time course of cognitive functions and subjective alertness in a parallel group(More)
This study describes the temporal distribution of slow-wave sleep (SWS) (defined as the visually scored stages 3 + 4) across the night for 16 infants aged between 20 weeks and 1 year, 17 children between 1 and 6 years, and 17 adults between 20 and 36 years. In all three groups the amounts of SWS peaked during the first nonrapid eye movement (NREM) episode.(More)
Question of the study The reliable evaluation of polysomnographic recordings (PSG) is an essential precondition for good clinical practice in sleep medicine. Although the scoring rules of Rechtschaffen and Kales [86] are internationally well established, they leave some room for different interpretations, and this may contribute to the limited reliability(More)
Body movements were measured during sleep with a mechanoelectrical transducer in 11 healthy adults. Also measured were the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG), and electromyogram (EMG). Each subject slept alone in a quiet room for 21 to 44 consecutive nights. Body movements were classified as minor movements (actogram signal or head leads(More)
The International Pharmaco-EEG Society (IPEG) presents guidelines summarising the requirements for the recording and computerised evaluation of pharmaco-sleep data in man. Over the past years, technical and data-processing methods have advanced steadily, thus enhancing data quality and expanding the palette of sleep assessment tools that can be used to(More)