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The transcription factors Foxo1, Foxo3 and Foxo4 modulate cell fate 'decisions' in diverse systems. Here we show that Foxo1-dependent gene expression was critical at many stages of B cell differentiation. Early deletion of Foxo1 caused a substantial block at the pro-B cell stage due to a failure to express interleukin 7 receptor-alpha. Foxo1 inactivation in(More)
Anergy is a critical physiologic mechanism to sensor self-reactive B cells. However, a biochemical understanding of how anergy is achieved and maintained is lacking. Herein, we investigated the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) lipid product PI(3,4,5)P(3) in B cell anergy. We found reduced generation of PI(3,4,5)P(3) in anergic B cells, which was(More)
Maturation and selection of high-affinity B cell clones in the germinal center (GC) relies on support from T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells. T(FH) cells are characterized by their localization to the B cell follicle and their high expression of the costimulatory molecules ICOS and PD1 and the cytokine IL-21, which promotes immunoglobulin (Ig) class(More)
Mammalian hosts are colonized with commensal microbes in various mucosal and epithelial tissues, including the intestinal tract. In mice, the presence of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) promotes Th17 differentiation and the development of autoimmune disease. Here, we demonstrate that the IL-23 pathway dynamically regulates the abundance of SFB as well(More)
TYK2 is a JAK family protein tyrosine kinase activated in response to multiple cytokines, including type I IFNs, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-23. Extensive studies of mice that lack TYK2 expression indicate that the IFN-α, IL-12, and IL-23 pathways, but not the IL-6 or IL-10 pathways, are compromised. In contrast, there have been few studies of the role of(More)
TYK2 is a JAK family protein tyrosine kinase activated in response to multiple cytokines, including type I IFNs, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-23. Extensive studies of mice that lack TYK2 expression indicate that the IFN-a, IL-12, and IL-23 pathways, but not the IL-6 or IL-10 pathways, are compromised. In contrast, there have been few studies of the role of(More)
The Foxo transcription factors (Foxo1, Foxo3, Foxo4) modulate cell fate decisions in diverse systems. Here we show that Foxo1-dependent gene expression was critical at multiple stages of B cell differentiation. Early deletion of Foxo1 caused a severe block at the pro-B cell stage, due to a failure to express interleukin 7 receptor α (IL-7Rα). Foxo1(More)
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