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Maturation and selection of high-affinity B cell clones in the germinal center (GC) relies on support from T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells. T(FH) cells are characterized by their localization to the B cell follicle and their high expression of the costimulatory molecules ICOS and PD1 and the cytokine IL-21, which promotes immunoglobulin (Ig) class(More)
TYK2 is a JAK family protein tyrosine kinase activated in response to multiple cytokines, including type I IFNs, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-23. Extensive studies of mice that lack TYK2 expression indicate that the IFN-α, IL-12, and IL-23 pathways, but not the IL-6 or IL-10 pathways, are compromised. In contrast, there have been few studies of the role of(More)
The Foxo transcription factors (Foxo1, Foxo3, Foxo4) modulate cell fate decisions in diverse systems. Here we show that Foxo1-dependent gene expression was critical at multiple stages of B cell differentiation. Early deletion of Foxo1 caused a severe block at the pro-B cell stage, due to a failure to express interleukin 7 receptor α (IL-7Rα). Foxo1(More)
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