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BACKGROUND Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant and widespread environmental chemicals. They are produced naturally and through man-made processes, and they are common in organic media, including petroleum. Several PAHs are toxic, and a subset exhibit carcinogenic activity. PAHs represent a range of chemical structures based on two or more(More)
Chemokines play a fundamental role in trafficking of immune cells and in host defense against infection. The role of chemokines in the recruitment process is highly regulated spatially and temporally and involves interactions with G protein-coupled receptors and cell surface glycosaminoglycans. The dynamic equilibrium between chemokine monomers and dimers,(More)
To explore the basis of apparent conformational heterogeneity of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the kinetics of dithionite-dependent reduction was studied in solution, in proteoliposomes, and in Nanodiscs. In CYP3A4 oligomers in solution the kinetics obeys a three-exponential equation with similar amplitudes of each of the phases. Addition of substrate(More)
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study we examined the progression of ALD along with lipidomic changes in rats fed ethanol for 2 and 3 months to understand the mechanism, and identify possible biomarkers. Male Fischer 344 rats were fed 5% ethanol or caloric equivalent of(More)
The contribution of conformational heterogeneity to cooperativity in cytochrome P450 3A4 was investigated using the mutant L211F/D214E/F304W. Initial spectral studies revealed a loss of cooperativity of the 1-pyrenebutanol (1-PB) induced spin shift (S(50)=5.4 microM, n=1.0) but retained cooperativity of alpha-naphthoflavone binding. Continuous variation(More)
To explore the mechanism of homotropic cooperativity in human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) we studied the interactions of the enzyme with 1-pyrenebutanol (1-PB), 1-pyrenemethylamine (PMA), and bromocriptine by FRET from the substrate fluorophore to the heme, and by absorbance spectroscopy. These approaches combined with an innovative setup of(More)
Chemokines elicit their function by binding receptors of the G-protein-coupled receptor class, and the N-terminal domain (N-domain) of the receptor is one of the two critical ligand-binding sites. In this study, the thermodynamic basis for binding of the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the N-domain of its receptor CXCR1 was characterized using isothermal(More)
The mechanisms of ligand binding and allostery in the major human drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) were explored with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using a laser dye, fluorol-7GA (F7GA), as a model substrate. Incorporation into the enzyme of a thiol-reactive FRET probe, pyrene iodoacetamide, allowed us to monitor the(More)
We used a rapid scanning stop-flow technique to study the kinetics of reduction of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) by the flavin domain of cytochrome P450-BM3 (BMR), which was shown to form a stoichiometric complex (K(D)=0.48 microM) with CYP3A4. In the absence of substrates only about 50% of CYP3A4 was able to accept electrons from BMR. Whereas the high-spin(More)
Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a member of the chemokine superfamily, exists as both monomers and dimers, and mediates its function by binding to neutrophil CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors that belong to the G protein-coupled receptor class. It is now well established that the monomer functions as a high-affinity ligand, but the binding affinity of the dimer remains(More)