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It is possible to create bainite in the form of long, slender crystals of ferrite whose scale compares with that of carbon nanotubes. These crystals are about 200Å in thickness and are generated by the partial transformation of austenite. The result is an extraordinary combination of strength and toughness; the bainite has the highest hardness and lowest(More)
Recent changes in the design of steam turbine power plant have necessitated the replacement of bolted ¯anges with welded joints. The design process therefore requires a knowledge of the creep rupture strength of the weld metal consumed in the welding process. This paper presents a method which can be used to estimate the creep rupture strength of ferritic(More)
Bainite forms by the decomposition of austenite at a temperature which is above M S but below that at which fine pearlite forms. All bainite forms below the T 0 temperature. All time–temperature–transformation (TTT) diagrams consist essentially of two C–curves (Fig. 1). If we focus first on the Fe–Mn–C steel with the higher hardenability (slower rates of(More)