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Nanometric solid inclusions in diamond incorporated in garnet and zircon from felsic gneiss of the Kokchetav massif, Kazakhstan, have been examined utilizing electron microscopy and focused ion beam techniques. Host garnet and zircon contain numerous pockets of multiple inclusions, which consist of 1–3 diamond crystals intergrown with quartz, phengite,(More)
A focused ion beam of Ga ions is a relatively new technique that has been developed for microelectronic industries. Now researchers of the Earth sciences find it to be a promising tool for studying various geological materials. Using the FIB technique and an FEI Strata DB 235 dual beam system, we have successfully prepared several electron-transparent(More)
Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS) is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered - Thirdhand smoke (THS) - the accumulation of SHS on surfaces that ages with time, becoming progressively more toxic. THS is a potential health(More)
Dehydration embrittlement has been proposed to explain both intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes in subduction zones. Because such earthquakes primarily occur at shallow depths or within the core of the subducting plate, dehydration at relatively low temperatures has been emphasized. However, recent careful relocation of subduction-zone earthquakes(More)
Metamorphic diamonds from the Erzgebirge, Germany have been investigated using synchrotron infrared absorption, Raman scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared absorption features associated with C–C, C–H bonds, molecular H 2 O, OH − and CO 3 2− radicals, and N-impurities were observed. The results suggest that a carbon–oxygen–hydrogen (COH)(More)
Phase transformations of metastable olivine might trigger deep-focus earthquakes (400 to 700 kilometers) in cold subducting lithosphere. To explore the feasibility of this mechanism, we performed laboratory deformation experiments on germanium olivine (Mg2GeO4) under differential stress at high pressure (P = 2 to 5 gigapascals) and within a narrow(More)
Strong evidence exists that water is carried from the surface into the upper mantle by hydrous minerals in the uppermost 10-12 km of subducting lithosphere, and more water may be added as the lithosphere bends and goes downwards. Significant amounts of that water are released as the lithosphere heats up, triggering earthquakes and fluxing arc volcanism. In(More)
Introduction Diamonds from kimberlites and related eruptions (diamond pipes) have been known and studied for many years and are now known from all continents (e.g. Haggerty, 1999). They were long thought to be the only primary source of diamonds in the Earth. However, discovery of micro-diamonds in metasediments in contin-demonstrated that continental(More)
Metasedimentary rocks, a major component of the continental crust, are abundant within ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes related to continental collisions. The presence of diamond, coesite, and relics of decompressed minerals in these rocks suggests that they were subducted to a depth of more than 150–250 km. Reconnaissance experiments at 9–12(More)