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BACKGROUND Anesthetic agents, especially volatile anesthetics and nitrous oxide (N2O), are suspected to perturb cerebral homeostasis and vascular reactivity. The authors quantified the effects of sevoflurane and propofol as sole anesthetics and in combination with N2O on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO2), and blood(More)
BACKGROUND The authors report a positron emission tomography (PET) study on humans with parallel exploration of the dose-dependent effects of an intravenous (propofol) and a volatile (sevoflurane) anesthetic agent on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using quantitative and relative (Statistical Parametric Mapping [SPM]) analysis. METHODS Using(More)
BACKGROUND Animal experiments have demonstrated neuroprotection by ketamine. However, because of its propensity to increase cerebral blood flow, metabolism, and intracranial pressure, its use in neurosurgery or trauma patients has been questioned. METHODS 15O-labeled water, oxygen, and carbon monoxide were used as positron emission tomography tracers to(More)
One of the greatest challenges of modern neuroscience is to discover the neural mechanisms of consciousness and to explain how they produce the conscious state. We sought the underlying neural substrate of human consciousness by manipulating the level of consciousness in volunteers with anesthetic agents and visualizing the resultant changes in brain(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies have demonstrated neuroprotective properties of S-ketamine, but its effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF), metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), and glucose metabolic rate (GMR) have not been comprehensively studied in humans. METHODS Positron emission tomography was used to quantify CBF and CMRO2 in eight healthy male volunteers(More)
RATIONALE The noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine induces transient psychotic symptoms in man. Involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in these effects has been suggested. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this article is to study the effects of ketamine on extrastriatal dopamine receptor availability in healthy subjects(More)
Anesthetic-induced changes in the neural activity of the brain have been recently utilized as a research model to investigate the neural mechanisms of phenomenal consciousness. However, the anesthesiologic definition of consciousness as "responsiveness to the environment" seems to sidestep the possibility that an unresponsive individual may have subjective(More)
Striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors have been suggested to play a role in pain sensitivity and placebo effect. We studied whether the association of dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential (BP) with sensory thresholds is specific to the modality of pain, and whether striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor BP predicts the magnitude of placebo analgesia. Pain and(More)
PURPOSE [(11)C]Carfentanil has been widely used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies for measuring micro-opioid receptor binding in humans, but the reproducibility of the binding parameter estimates is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eight healthy volunteers were scanned twice during the same day with [(11)C]carfentanil PET, and binding to(More)
ENTROPY index monitoring, based on spectral entropy of the electroencephalogram, is a promising new method to measure the depth of anaesthesia. We examined the association between spectral entropy and regional cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects anaesthetised with 2%, 3% and 4% end-expiratory concentrations of sevoflurane and 7.6, 12.5 and 19.0(More)