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The characteristics and mechanisms of synchronized firing in developing networks of cultured cortical neurons were studied using multisite recording through planar electrode arrays (PEAs). With maturation of the network (from 3 to 40 d after plating), the frequency and propagation velocity of bursts increased markedly (approximately from 0.01 to 0.5 Hz and(More)
Activity-dependent modification of synaptic efficacy is widely recognized as a cellular basis of learning, memory, and developmental plasticity. Little is known, however, of the consequences of such modification on network activity. Using electrode arrays, we examined how a single, localized tetanic stimulus affects the firing of up to 72 neurons recorded(More)
Neurons in the functioning cortex fire erratically, with highly variable intervals between spikes. How much irregularity comes from the process of postsynaptic integration and how much from fluctuations in synaptic input? We have addressed these questions by recording the firing of neurons in slices of rat visual cortex in which synaptic receptors are(More)
Neurons and dynamical models of spike generation display two different types of threshold behavior, with steady current stimulation: type 1 [the firing frequency vs. current (f-I) relationship is continuous at threshold) and type 2 (discontinuous f-I)]. The dynamics at threshold can have profound effects on the encoding of input as spikes, the sensitivity(More)
Long-term recording of spontaneous activity in cultured cortical neuronal networks was carried out using substrates containing multi-electrode arrays. Spontaneous uncorrelated firing appeared within the first 3 days and transformed progressively into synchronized bursting within a week. By 30 days from the establishment of the culture, the network exhibited(More)
1. In Mg(2+)-free external solution, rat cortical neurons in cultured networks entered a stable firing mode, consisting of regular bursts of action potentials superimposed on long-lasting depolarizations. The average separation between bursts varied from culture to culture, but was usually between 5 and 20 s. The distribution of burst intervals followed a(More)
Rat cortical neurons were cultured on planar electrode arrays with 64 embedded electrodes. Whole-cell recording from single neurons and multisite extracellular recording were carried out simultaneously in the cultured cortical networks, and the effects of focal tetanic stimulation of the culture were studied. Both the number of action potentials and the(More)
Synchronous oscillations in neural activity are found over wide areas of the cortex. Specific populations of interneurons are believed to play a significant role in generating these synchronized oscillations through mutual synaptic and gap-junctional interactions. Little is known, though, about the mechanism of how oscillations are maintained stably by(More)
Quantitative understanding of the dynamics of particular cell types when responding to complex, natural inputs is an important prerequisite for understanding the operation of the cortical network. Different types of inhibitory neurons are connected by electrical synapses to nearby neurons of the same type, enabling the formation of synchronized assemblies(More)