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Rodent spatial cognition studies allow links to be made between neural and behavioural phenomena, and much is now known about the encoding and use of horizontal space. However, the real world is three dimensional, providing cognitive challenges that have yet to be explored. Motivated by neural findings suggesting weaker encoding of vertical than horizontal(More)
—The Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus) has one of the broadest breeding distributions of any North American bird and is also one of the most morphologically variable with as many as  described subspecies. This wide distribution and high degree of phenotypic diversity suggests the presence of underlying genetic structure. We used ND sequence from (More)
1. A study has been made of the zinc, copper, iron, manganese, protein (nitrogen X 6.25) and phytic acid contents of nineteen soya-bean-based textured-vegetable-protein (TVP) meat-extenders and meat-substitutes and of three "ready-prepared" canned meals containing TVP. 2. Phytate analysis was performed using a newly-developed method based on Holt's (1955)(More)
—Because they share several morphological and ecological characters, the North American sparrow (Emberizidae) genera Ammodramus, Passerculus, and Xenospiza have historically been considered members of a well-defi ned “grassland” sparrow assemblage. Relationships among the 11 members of this group have been the subject of much taxonomic debate, yet no(More)
-We examined patterns of variation in skeletal morphometrics (29 characters), allozymes (34 loci), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction sites (n = 74) and fragments (n = 395), and mtDNA sequences (1,739 bp from cytochrome b, ND2, ND6, and the control region) among all species of Toxostoma. The phenetic pattern of variation in skeletal morphometrics(More)
Over the past two decades, the dipole approximation has facilitated a basic understanding of the photoionization process in atoms and molecules. Recent experiments on the Is inner shells of small molecules at relatively low photon energies (< 1000 eV) show strong nondipole effects. They are significant and measurable at energies close to threshold, in(More)