Harry P de Koning

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Sleeping sickness is an increasing problem in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The problems are compounded by the lack of new medication, and the increasing resistance against traditional drugs such as melarsoprol, berenil and isometamidium. Over the last few years, much progress has been made in understanding how drug action, and the development of(More)
Adenosine influx by Trypanosoma brucei brucei P1 and P2 transporters was kinetically characterized. The P1 transporter displayed a higher affinity and capacity for adenosine (K(m) = 0.38 +/- 0.10 microM, V(max) = 2.8 +/- 0.4 pmol x 10(7) cells(-1) x s(-1)) than the P2 transporter (K(m) = 0.92 +/- 0.06 microM, V(max) = 1.12 +/- 0.08 4 pmol x 10(7) cells(-1)(More)
Despite the many decades of use of most of the current trypanocides, we know little of their mode of action. This may in part be because most of these will act on multiple targets once inside the cell, and they derive their selective action on the parasite from selective accumulation by the pathogen. Loss of this capacity for drug uptake by the trypanosome(More)
The trypanocidal action of pentamidine is dependent on the rapid, selective accumulation of this drug by the parasite. We have investigated pentamidine transport by the bloodstream and procyclic life cycle stages of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. In bloodstream forms, 50 to 70% of [(3)H]pentamidine was transported by an adenosine-sensitive pentamidine(More)
Treatment of many infectious diseases is under threat from drug resistance. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance is as high a priority as the development of new drugs. We have investigated the basis for cross-resistance between the diamidine and melaminophenyl arsenical classes of drugs in African trypanosomes. We induced high levels of pentamidine(More)
African trypanosomes are capable of both pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage of preformed pyrimidines from the host. However, uptake of pyrimidines in bloodstream form trypanosomes has not been investigated, making it difficult to judge the relative importance of salvage and synthesis or to design a pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Detailed characterization(More)
Diamidines, and pentamidine in particular, have a long history as valuable chemotherapeutic agents against infectious disease. Their selectivity is due mostly to selective accumulation by the pathogen, rather than the host cell; and acquired resistance is frequently the result of changes in transmembrane transport of the drug. Here, recent progress in(More)
The therapeutic index of antimetabolites such as purine analogues is in large part determined by the extent to which it is selectively accumulated by the target cell. In the current study we have compared the transport of purine nucleobase analogues by the H2 transporter of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei and the equilibrative nucleobase(More)
Trypanosoma brucei encodes a relatively high number of genes of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. We report here the cloning and in-depth characterization of one T. brucei brucei ENT member, TbNT9/AT-D. This transporter was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and displayed a uniquely high affinity for adenosine (Km = 0.068 +/- 0.013(More)
OBJECTIVES Trypanosoma brucei drug transporters include the TbAT1/P2 aminopurine transporter and the high-affinity pentamidine transporter (HAPT1), but the genetic identity of HAPT1 is unknown. We recently reported that loss of T. brucei aquaglyceroporin 2 (TbAQP2) caused melarsoprol/pentamidine cross-resistance (MPXR) in these parasites and the current(More)