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Members of the mammalian protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily play key regulatory roles in a multitude of cellular processes, ranging from control of fundamental cell autonomous activities, such as proliferation, to more organismal functions, such as memory. However, understanding of mammalian PKC signalling systems is complicated by the large number of(More)
BACKGROUND Sorting nexins (SNXs) are phox homology (PX) domain-containing proteins thought to regulate endosomal sorting of internalized receptors. The prototypical SNX is sorting nexin-1 (SNX1), a protein that through its PX domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate [PtdIns(3)P] and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P(2)]. SNX1 is(More)
We have used a c-Src-GFP fusion protein to address the spatial control of Src activation and the nature of Src-associated intracellular structures during stimulus-induced transit to the membrane. Src is activated during transit, particularly in RhoB-containing cytoplasmic endosomes associated with the perinuclear recycling compartment. Knocking out RhoB or(More)
Eukaryotic cells produce a variety of specialized actin-rich surface protrusions. These include filopodia-thin, highly dynamic projections that help cells to sense their external environment. Filopodia consist of parallel filaments of actin, bundled by actin crosslinking proteins. The filaments are oriented with their rapidly growing "barbed" ends at the(More)
Animal cell movement is effected through a combination of protrusive and contractile events. Non-muscle cells contain stress fibres - bundles of actomyosin that are the major mediators of cell contraction and that can be compared to the highly organised actomyosin arrays of muscle cells. Recent studies have defined regulatory mechanisms that control stress(More)
Filopodia are highly dynamic cell-surface protrusions used by cells to sense their external environment. At the core of the filopodium is a bundle of actin filaments. These give form to the filopodia and also drive the cycle of elongation and retraction. Recent studies have shown that two very different actin nucleating proteins control the formation of(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of paediatric diarrhoea and a model for the family of attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. A/E pathogens encode a type III secretion system to transfer effector proteins into host cells. The EPEC Tir effector protein acts as a receptor for the bacterial surface protein intimin and is involved in(More)
PRK1 (PKN) is a serine/threonine kinase that has been shown to be activated by RhoA (Amano, M., Mukai, H., Ono, Y., Chihara, K., Matsui, T., Hamajima, Y., Okawa, K., Iwamatsu, A., and Kaibuchi, K. (1996) Science 271, 648-650). Detailed analysis of the PRK1 region involved in RhoA binding has revealed that two homologous sequences within the HR1 domain (HR1a(More)
Endothelial cells respond to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to produce new blood vessels. This process of angiogenesis makes a critical contribution during embryogenesis and also in the response to ischemia in adult tissues. We have studied the intracellular trafficking of the major VEGF receptor KDR (VEGFR2). Unlike other related growth factor(More)