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BACKGROUND Sorting nexins (SNXs) are phox homology (PX) domain-containing proteins thought to regulate endosomal sorting of internalized receptors. The prototypical SNX is sorting nexin-1 (SNX1), a protein that through its PX domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate [PtdIns(3)P] and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P(2)]. SNX1 is(More)
Filopodia are highly dynamic cell-surface protrusions used by cells to sense their external environment. At the core of the filopodium is a bundle of actin filaments. These give form to the filopodia and also drive the cycle of elongation and retraction. Recent studies have shown that two very different actin nucleating proteins control the formation of(More)
Eukaryotic cells produce a variety of specialized actin-rich surface protrusions. These include filopodia-thin, highly dynamic projections that help cells to sense their external environment. Filopodia consist of parallel filaments of actin, bundled by actin crosslinking proteins. The filaments are oriented with their rapidly growing "barbed" ends at the(More)
Spatially resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), provides a method for tracing the catalytic activity of fluorescently tagged proteins inside live cell cultures and enables determination of the functional state of proteins in fixed cells and tissues. Here, a dynamic marker of(More)
Small GTPases of the Rho family have a critical role in controlling cell morphology, motility and adhesion through dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton [1,2]. Individual Rho GTPases have been shown to regulate distinct components of the cytoskeletal architecture; RhoA stimulates the bundling of actin filaments into stress fibres [3], Rac reorganises(More)
A fundamental control point in the regulation of the initiation of protein synthesis is the formation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF-4F) complex. The formation of this complex depends upon the availability of the mRNA cap binding protein, eIF-4E, which is sequestered away from the translational machinery by the tight association of eIF-4E(More)
Members of the Rho family of small GTPases control cell adhesion and motility through dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Although twelve family members have been identified, only three of these - RhoA, Rac and Cdc42 - have been studied in detail. RhoA regulates the formation of focal adhesions and the bundling of actin filaments into stress(More)
The processes by which a Schwann cell (SC) migrates towards, wraps around and, in some cases, myelinates an axon are incompletely understood. The complex morphological rearrangements involved in these events require fundamental changes in the actin cytoskeleton. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are two modulators of the actin(More)
PRK1 (PKN) is a serine/threonine kinase that has been shown to be activated Detailed analysis of the PRK1 region involved in RhoA binding has revealed that two homologous sequences within the HR1 domain (HR1a and HR1b) both bind to RhoA; the third repeat within this domain, HR1c PRK1 , does not bind RhoA. The related HR1 motif is also found to confer RhoA(More)
The membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol is the precursor of a family of lipid second-messengers, known as phosphoinositides, which differ in the phosphorylation status of their inositol group. A major advance in understanding phosphoinositide signalling has been the identification of a number of highly conserved modular protein domains whose function(More)