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BACKGROUND Sorting nexins (SNXs) are phox homology (PX) domain-containing proteins thought to regulate endosomal sorting of internalized receptors. The prototypical SNX is sorting nexin-1 (SNX1), a protein that through its PX domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate [PtdIns(3)P] and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P(2)]. SNX1 is(More)
Eukaryotic cells produce a variety of specialized actin-rich surface protrusions. These include filopodia-thin, highly dynamic projections that help cells to sense their external environment. Filopodia consist of parallel filaments of actin, bundled by actin crosslinking proteins. The filaments are oriented with their rapidly growing "barbed" ends at the(More)
Small GTPases of the Rho family have a critical role in controlling cell morphology, motility and adhesion through dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton [1,2]. Individual Rho GTPases have been shown to regulate distinct components of the cytoskeletal architecture; RhoA stimulates the bundling of actin filaments into stress fibres [3], Rac reorganises(More)
A fundamental control point in the regulation of the initiation of protein synthesis is the formation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF-4F) complex. The formation of this complex depends upon the availability of the mRNA cap binding protein, eIF-4E, which is sequestered away from the translational machinery by the tight association of eIF-4E(More)
Members of the Rho family of small GTPases control cell adhesion and motility through dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Although twelve family members have been identified, only three of these - RhoA, Rac and Cdc42 - have been studied in detail. RhoA regulates the formation of focal adhesions and the bundling of actin filaments into stress(More)
The processes by which a Schwann cell (SC) migrates towards, wraps around and, in some cases, myelinates an axon are incompletely understood. The complex morphological rearrangements involved in these events require fundamental changes in the actin cytoskeleton. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are two modulators of the actin(More)
Many cell types can generate thin actin-based protrusive structures, which are often classified under the general term of 'filopodia'. However, a range of filopodia-like structures exists that differ both morphologically and functionally. In this brief review, we discuss the different types of filopodial structures, together with the actin-binding proteins(More)
The membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol is the precursor of a family of lipid second-messengers, known as phosphoinositides, which differ in the phosphorylation status of their inositol group. A major advance in understanding phosphoinositide signalling has been the identification of a number of highly conserved modular protein domains whose function(More)