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For many complex traits, genetic variants have been found associated. However, it is still mostly unclear through which downstream mechanism these variants cause these phenotypes. Knowledge of these intermediate steps is crucial to understand pathogenesis, while also providing leads for potential pharmacological intervention. Here we relied upon natural(More)
It is known that genetic variants can affect gene expression, but it is not yet completely clear through what mechanisms genetic variation mediate this expression. We therefore compared the cis-effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on gene expression between blood samples from 1,240 human subjects and four primary non-blood tissues (liver,(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a functional barrier that hampers the delivery of various drugs to the brain by its physicoanatomical properties and by the presence of ATP-driven drug efflux pumps, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The aims of this study were (1) to study whether the distribution volume (DV) is useful for quantification of (labeled) P-gp(More)
Response rate and toxicity of second-line therapy with docetaxel (75 mg m(-2)) or docetaxel, irinotecan, and lenogastrim (60 mg m(-2), 200 mg m(-2), and 150 microg m(-2) day(-1), respectively) were compared in 108 patients with stage IIIb-IV non-small-cell lung cancer. Addition of irinotecan to docetaxel does not improve response rate, and increases(More)
We performed a second-generation genome-wide association study of 4,533 individuals with celiac disease (cases) and 10,750 control subjects. We genotyped 113 selected SNPs with P(GWAS) < 10(-4) and 18 SNPs from 14 known loci in a further 4,918 cases and 5,684 controls. Variants from 13 new regions reached genome-wide significance (P(combined) < 5 x 10(-8));(More)
BACKGROUND Quality of life (QoL) is considered to be an indispensable outcome measure of curative and palliative treatment. However, QoL research often yields findings that raise questions about what QoL measurement instruments actually assess and how the scores should be interpreted. OBJECTIVE To investigate how patients interpret and respond to(More)
UNLABELLED EGFR-mutant lung cancers responsive to reversible EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib/erlotinib) develop acquired resistance, mediated by second-site EGFR T790M mutation in >50% of cases. Preclinically, afatinib (irreversible ErbB family blocker) plus cetuximab (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody) overcomes T790M-mediated resistance. This phase Ib study(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the factors associated with CT-quantified emphysema progression in heavy smokers. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of length of smoking cessation and clinical / demographical factors on the rate of emphysema progression and FEV1-decline in male heavy smokers. METHODS 3,670 male smokers with mean(More)
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed genetic risk factors in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Several of the associated genes and underlying pathways are shared by various autoimmune diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and coeliac disease (CD) are two autoimmune disorders which have commonalities in their pathogenesis. We aimed(More)
5-fluorouracil pharmacokinetics, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase-activity and DNA sequence analysis were compared between a patient with extreme 5-fluorouracil induced toxicity and six control patients with normal 5-fluorouracil related symptoms. Patients were treated for colorectal cancer and received chemotherapy consisting of leucovorin 20 mg m(-2) plus(More)