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Thioflavine T (ThT) associates rapidly with aggregated fibrils of the synthetic beta/A4-derived peptides beta(1-28) and beta(1-40), giving rise to a new excitation (ex) (absorption) maximum at 450 nm and enhanced emission (em) at 482 nm, as opposed to the 385 nm (ex) and 445 nm (em) of the free dye. This change is dependent on the aggregated state as(More)
Absorption of a photon of light by rhodopsin triggers mechanisms responsible for excitation as well as regulation of the phototransduction cascade. Arrestins are a family of proteins that appear to be responsible for terminating the active state of G-protein-coupled receptors. One of the major substrates of light-dependent phosphorylation in the visual(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS) brains contain deposits of amyloid-beta peptide that are located extracellularly in the neuropil and in blood vessels walls. A small fraction of brain Abeta is detected intracellularly in neurons, smooth muscle cells, and microglia. The roles of these extracellular and intracellular pools of Abeta in(More)
Aged nonhuman primates accumulate large amounts of human-sequence amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, yet they do not manifest the full phenotype of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To assess the biophysical properties of Aβ that might govern its pathogenic potential in humans and nonhuman primates, we incubated the benzothiazole imaging agent Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB)(More)
Although viral propagation is a localized process, mathematical models of viral replication kinetics have been limited to systems of ordinary differential equations describing spatially averaged behavior. In this paper, we introduce a cellular automaton model of viral propagation based on the known biophysical properties of HIV. In particular, we include(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is widely believed to be driven by the production and deposition of the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). For many years, investigators have been puzzled by the weak to nonexistent correlation between the amount of neuritic plaque pathology in the human brain and the degree of clinical dementia. Recent advances in our(More)
Amyloid beta (Abeta) 1-42 oligomers accumulate in brains of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and disrupt synaptic plasticity processes that underlie memory formation. Synaptic binding of Abeta oligomers to several putative receptor proteins is reported to inhibit long-term potentiation, affect membrane trafficking and induce reversible spine(More)
Upon activation by calcineurin, the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) translocates to the nucleus and guides the transcription of numerous molecules involved in inflammation and Ca(2+) dysregulation, both of which are prominent features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, NFAT signaling in AD remains relatively uninvestigated. Using isolated(More)
Deposition of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in senile plaques and cerebral Aβ angiopathy (CAA) can be stimulated in Aβ-precursor protein (APP)-transgenic mice by the intracerebral injection of dilute brain extracts containing aggregated Aβ seeds. Growing evidence implicates a prion-like mechanism of corruptive protein templating in this phenomenon, in which(More)
With advancing age, the brain becomes increasingly susceptible to neurodegenerative diseases, most of which are characterized by the misfolding and errant aggregation of certain proteins. The induction of aggregation involves a crystallization-like seeding mechanism by which a specific protein is structurally corrupted by its misfolded conformer. The latest(More)