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The buccal mucosa offers excellent possibilities for the (long-term) delivery of suitable drugs, especially for metabolically unstable drugs, such as peptides. A review is given of the present knowledge about buccal drug absorption and drug delivery devices. The structure and physiology of the oral mucosae are described, as well as interspecies differences(More)
The barrier properties of human epidermis grafted for 1-3 months onto nude mice are compared with normal human skin. Beside penetration studies with tritiated water and measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), we analyzed the epidermal lipids by high-performance thin layer chromatography and evaluated the ultrastructure of the intercorneocyte lipid(More)
PURPOSE This study aims to elucidate the skin permeation enhancement and the skin perturbation effects of a number of fatty acids, i.e. straight-chain saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated acids (PUFA). METHODS The skin permeation enhancement effects were studied using human stratum comeum (SC) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a(More)
In transdermal iontophoresis, drugs can be driven across the skin by electrorepulsion, but their transport can also be enhanced by electrical perturbation of the skin barrier. Our objective was to study perturbing effects of electrical current on human stratum corneum lipid fine structure combining techniques including freeze-fracture electron microscopy.(More)
The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of R-apomorphine were determined in 10 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease after intravenous infusion of 30 micrograms.kg-1 in 15 min. Specifically, emphasis was on enantiomeric interconversion into S-apomorphine and on the formation of apocodeine and isoapocodeine, since these metabolites may interfere with the(More)
Most patients with autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis are known to have markedly impaired skin barrier function. We hypothesize that this may be due to imperfections in the composition and fine structure of the intercellular stratum corneum lipids. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis. To characterize the barrier properties in three(More)
In order to develop a muco-adhesive hydrogel for buccal drug delivery it is necessary to understand fully the properties determining adhesiveness as well as mechanisms involved. In this study we measured glass transition temperatures, water contact angles and the peel- and shear detachment forces from porcine oral mucosa, of acrylic acid and butyl acrylate(More)
In this study, we characterized the stratum corneum barrier function in 39 patients with various keratinization disorders (autosomal dominant ichthyosis vulgaris [ADI] [n = 7], X-linked recessive ichthyosis [XRI] [n = 6], autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis [CI] [n = 10], dyskeratosis follicularis [Darier's disease; DD] [n = 8], erythrokeratoderma(More)
Buccal delivery of fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran 4400 (FD4) was investigated in-vivo in pigs. The delivery device consisted of an application chamber with a solution of FD4 and was adhered to the buccal mucosa for 4 h using an adhesive patch. A randomized crossover study including intravenous administration and buccal delivery without and with(More)
As skin barrier modulating compounds, fatty acids are frequently used in formulations for transdermal or topical delivery. In this study the effects of oleic acid on keratinocytes in vitro was compared with its in vivo skin irritancy in humans. Dose- and time-dependent effects of oleic acid were examined in submerged human keratinocyte cultures, in(More)