Few studies have determined whether formal estimates of selection explain patterns of trait divergence among populations, yet this is one approach for evaluating whether the populations are in equilibria. If adaptive divergence is complete, directional selection should be absent and stabilizing selection should prevail. We estimated natural selection, due… (More)
We conducted a field study in Iliamna Lake, Alaska, to test the hypothesis that proximity of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus to the lake’s surface during the daytime varies with macroparasitic cestode parasite Schistocephalus solidus infection in a manner consistent with enhanced vulnerability to avian predators. Extensive sampling in the… (More)
harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in Iliamna Lake, Alaska: patterns of summer diet and partial consumption of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Aquatic Mammals. In press. Distinguishing between populations of fresh-and saltwater harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) using stable-isotope ratios and fatty acid profiles.