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The crystal structure based model of the catalytic center of Ago2 revealed that the siRNA and the mRNA must be able to form an A-helix for correct positing of the scissile phosphate bond for cleavage in RNAi. This suggests that base pairing of the target mRNA with itself, i.e. secondary structure, must be removed before cleavage. Early on in the siRNA(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-24 nucleotide (nt) duplex RNAs that are created from precursor transcripts by subsequent processing steps mediated by members of the RNAseIII family, Drosha and Dicer. One of the two strands is incorporated into the active sites of the Argonaute family of proteins, where it serves as a guide for Watson-Crick base pairing with(More)
Despite the great potential of RNAi, ectopic expression of shRNA or siRNAs holds the inherent risk of competition for critical RNAi components, thus altering the regulatory functions of some cellular microRNAs. In addition, specific siRNA sequences can potentially hinder incorporation of other siRNAs when used in a combinatorial approach. We show that both(More)
Efficient delivery of small interfering (si)RNA to specific cell populations in vivo remains a formidable challenge to its successful therapeutic application. We show that siRNA synthetically linked to a CpG oligonucleotide agonist of toll-like receptor (TLR)9 targets and silences genes in TLR9(+) myeloid cells and B cells, both of which are key components(More)
For the past 15-20 years, the intracellular delivery and silencing activity of oligodeoxynucleotides have been essentially completely dependent on the use of a delivery technology (e.g. lipofection). We have developed a method (called 'gymnosis') that does not require the use of any transfection reagent or any additives to serum whatsoever, but rather takes(More)
Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1 or L1) comprise 17% of the human genome, although only 80-100 L1s are considered retrotransposition-competent (RC-L1). Despite their small number, RC-L1s are still potential hazards to genome integrity through insertional mutagenesis, unequal recombination and chromosome rearrangements. In this study, we provide(More)
TOK-001 and abiraterone are potent 17-heteroarylsteroid (17-HAS) inhibitors of Cyp17, one of the rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of testosterone from cholesterol in prostate cancer cells. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the prevention of prostate cell growth by 17-HASs still remains elusive. Here, we assess the effects of 17-HASs(More)
Whether long interspersed element-1 (L1 or LINE-1) retrotransposition can occur in quiescent, nondividing, and/or terminally differentiated somatic cells has remained an unanswered fundamental question in human genetics. Here, we used a ubiquitously active phosphoglycerate kinase-1 promoter to drive the expression of a highly active human L1 element from an(More)
Antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides have been used for decades to achieve sequence-specific silencing of gene expression. However, all early generation oligonucleotides (e.g., those with no other modifications than the phosphorothioate backbone) are inactive in vitro unless administered using a delivery vehicle. These delivery vehicles are usually lipidic(More)
It has long been recognized that the mechanisms mediating retrotransposition might be adapted for genomic integration and long-term expression of foreign genes. In particular, long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), an abundant class of retrotransposons that are the most active mobile genetic elements in the human genome, have been largely ignored as(More)