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The crystal structure based model of the catalytic center of Ago2 revealed that the siRNA and the mRNA must be able to form an A-helix for correct positing of the scissile phosphate bond for cleavage in RNAi. This suggests that base pairing of the target mRNA with itself, i.e. secondary structure, must be removed before cleavage. Early on in the siRNA(More)
Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1 or L1) comprise 17% of the human genome, although only 80-100 L1s are considered retrotransposition-competent (RC-L1). Despite their small number, RC-L1s are still potential hazards to genome integrity through insertional mutagenesis, unequal recombination and chromosome rearrangements. In this study, we provide(More)
Despite the great potential of RNAi, ectopic expression of shRNA or siRNAs holds the inherent risk of competition for critical RNAi components, thus altering the regulatory functions of some cellular microRNAs. In addition, specific siRNA sequences can potentially hinder incorporation of other siRNAs when used in a combinatorial approach. We show that both(More)
In humans a single species of the RNAseIII enzyme Dicer processes both microRNA precursors into miRNAs and long double-stranded RNAs into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). An interesting but poorly understood domain of the mammalian Dicer protein is the N-terminal helicase-like domain that possesses a signature DExH motif. Cummins et al. created a human(More)
For the past 15-20 years, the intracellular delivery and silencing activity of oligodeoxynucleotides have been essentially completely dependent on the use of a delivery technology (e.g. lipofection). We have developed a method (called 'gymnosis') that does not require the use of any transfection reagent or any additives to serum whatsoever, but rather takes(More)
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are known to trigger mRNA degradation in the nucleus via an RNase H-dependent mechanism. We have now identified a putative cytoplasmic mechanism through which ASO gapmers silence their targets when transfected or delivered gymnotically (i.e. in the absence of any transfection reagent). We have shown that the ASO gapmers can(More)
Gymnosis is the process of the delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to cells, in the absence of any carriers or conjugation, that produces sequence-specific gene silencing. While gymnosis was originally demonstrated using locked nucleic acid (LNA) gapmers, 2'-deoxy-2'fluoroarabino nucleic acid (2'F-ANA) phosphorothioate gapmer oligonucleotides(More)
Long interspersed elements (LINE-1 or L1) are the most active transposable elements in the human genome. Due to their high copy number and ability to sponsor retrotransposition of nonautonomous RNA sequences, unchecked L1 activity can negatively impact the genome by a number of means. Substantial evidence in lower eukaryotes demonstrates that the RNA(More)
Ampullary adenocarcinoma is a rare gastrointestinal cancer associated with diverse outcomes due to clinical and pathological heterogeneity. Standardized methods to better prognosticate and inform therapeutic selection for ampullary adenocarcinoma are needed. This study explored the novel use and potential prognostic utility of a 92-gene cancer classifier in(More)
Efficient delivery of siRNA to specific cell populations in vivo remains a formidable challenge to its successful therapeutic application. We describe a novel siRNA-based approach – synthetically linking siRNA to an oligonucleotide TLR9 agonist – that targets and silences genes in TLR9 + myeloid cells and B cells, both of which are key components of the(More)
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