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Using suction electrodes, photocurrent responses to 100-ms saturating flashes were recorded from isolated retinal rods of the larval-stage tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). The delay period (Tc) that preceded recovery of the dark current by a criterion amount (3 pA) was analyzed in relation to the flash intensity (If), and to the corresponding(More)
Receptor potentials were recorded extracellularly from the all-rod retina of the skate after the application of sodium aspartate. This agent suppresses the responses of proximal elements, but leaves relatively unaffected the electrical activity of the photoreceptors (a-wave) and pigment epithelium (c-wave). Since the latter develops too slowly to interfere(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the consequences of the expression of a mutant mouse opsin gene on rod- and cone-mediated function. Experimental conditions were chosen to provide a basis of comparison to the results reported for patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) in whom the proline at position 23 has been replaced by a histidine (P23H). (More)
Five gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rho subunits were cloned from a white perch retinal cDNA library and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated that all are highly homologous to the GABA-rho subunits cloned from mammalian retinas; two clones (perch-rho 1A and perch-rho 1B) were in the rho 1 family, two (perch-rho 2A and(More)
Retinal neurons are coupled by electrical synapses that have been studied extensively in situ and in isolated cell pairs. Although many unique gating properties have been identified, the connexin composition of retinal gap junctions is not well defined. We have functionally characterized connexin35 (Cx35), a recently cloned connexin belonging to the gamma(More)
Retinal neurons of virtually every type are coupled by gap-junctional channels whose pharmacological and gating properties have been studied extensively. We have begun to identify the molecular composition and functional properties of the connexins that form these 'electrical synapses,' and have cloned several that constitute a new subclass (gamma) of the(More)
We have cloned cDNAs for two closely related connexins (Cx), Cx35 and Cx34.7, from a perch retinal cDNA library. Sequencing of PCR products from genomic DNA revealed that both connexins have an intron 71 bp after the translation initiation site; in Cx35, the intron is 900 bp in length, whereas in Cx34.7 it is approximately 20 kb. Southern blots of genomic(More)
In the vertebrate retina, vision is initiated and maintained by the photolysis and regeneration, respectively, of light-sensitive pigments in the disk membranes of the photoreceptor outer segments. This cyclical process depends on an exchange of retinoids between the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). There is a great deal of indirect(More)
Vision in all vertebrates is dependent on an exchange of retinoids between the retinal pigment epithelium and the visual photoreceptors. It has been proposed that the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is essential for this intercellular exchange, and that it serves to prevent the potentially cytotoxic effects of retinoids. Although its(More)