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A new regression technique based on Vapnik's concept of support vectors is introduced. We compare support vector regression (SVR) with a committee regression technique (bagging) based on regression trees and ridge regression done in feature space. On the basis of these experiments, it is expected that SVR will have advantages in high dimensionality space(More)
We study the use of support vector machines (SVM's) in classifying e-mail as spam or nonspam by comparing it to three other classification algorithms: Ripper, Rocchio, and boosting decision trees. These four algorithms were tested on two different data sets: one data set where the number of features were constrained to the 1000 best features and another(More)
In the regression context, boosting and bagging are techniques to build a committee of regressors that may be superior to a single regressor. We use regression trees as fundamental building blocks in bagging committee machines and boosting committee machines. Performance is analyzed on three non-linear functions and the Boston housing database. In all(More)
This paper compares the performance of several classiier algorithms on a standard database of handwritten digits. We consider not only raw accuracy, but also training time, recognition time, and memory requirements. When available, we report measurements of the fraction of patterns that must be rejected so that the remaining patterns have misclassiication(More)
In order to generalize from a training set to a test set, it is desirable that small changes in the input space of a pattern do not change the output components. This can be done by forcing this behavior as part of the training algorithm. This is done in double backpropagation by forming an energy function that is the sum of the normal energy term found in(More)
A simple purification procedure has been developed for the extracellular alkaline protease from Neurospora crassa. Key steps in the purification were: 1) the choice of gelatin as the protein inducer, which induces optimally at a much lower concentration than other commonly employed protein inducers; 2) heat treatment, during which the inducer is digested by(More)
The cytochrome c(3) of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and that of D. vulgaris were purified to homogeneity as judged by disc gel electrophoresis and by ultracentrifugation. Both cytochromes had an oxidation-reduction potential of -205 +/- 5 mv at pH 7.0 and showed characteristic absorption bands at 525 and 553 nm in the reduced state. The molecular weights of(More)