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Studies in both humans and rodents suggest that exercise can be neuroprotective, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are still poorly understood. Three weeks of voluntary, physical activity in rats upregulates prepro-galanin messenger RNA levels in the locus coeruleus. Galanin is a neuropeptide extensively coexisting with norepinephrine that decreases(More)
Chronic post traumatic stress has been described as a "physioneurosis" (Kardiner 1941), that is, a mental disorder with both psychological and physiological components. The behavioral sequelae of inescapable shock in animals and of massive psychic trauma in people show a striking parallel. Inescapable shock in animals leads to both transient catecholamine(More)
Cooperation and betrayal are universal features of social interactions, and knowing who to trust is vital in human society. Previous studies have identified brain regions engaged by decision making during social encounters, but the mechanisms supporting modification of future behaviour by utilizing social experience are not well characterized. Using(More)
In this study, the effects of three related peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38), PACAP27, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), on cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were compared in N1E-115 cells. PACAP38 and PACAP27 stimulated cAMP accumulation up to 60-fold with EC50(More)
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