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The feasibility of a single-shot, low-dose vaccination against pandemic influenza was investigated. The immunogenicity and safety of whole inactivated, cell culture-derived H5N1 virus plus CoVaccine HT™ as adjuvant was tested in various animal species. In ferrets, doses of 4.0 and 7.5 μg H5N1 (NIBRG-14; A/Vietnam/1194/04; clade 1) without adjuvant gave low(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of prolonged TGF-beta exposure on cartilage and ligamentous joint structures in vivo, to investigate involvement of TGF-beta in osteoarthritis pathology. METHODS TGF-beta was injected into murine knee joints once or repeatedly, whereafter articular cartilage proteoglycan (PG) synthesis and content, and histological changes(More)
Osteoarthritis has as main characteristics the degradation of articular cartilage and the formation of new bone at the joint edges, so-called osteophytes. In this study enhanced expression of TGF-beta1 and -beta3 was detected in developing osteophytes and articular cartilage during murine experimental osteoarthritis. To determine the role of endogenous(More)
A severe consequence of rheumatoid arthritis is depletion of proteoglycans (PGs) from articular cartilage leading to functional impairment of this tissue. We investigated whether local administration of anabolic factors (transforming growth factors-beta1 and -beta2 [TGF-beta1 and -beta2, respectively] and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) into joints(More)
OBJECTIVE The related molecules bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1) have both been shown to stimulate chondrocyte proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in vitro. We investigated the in-vivo effects of these factors on articular cartilage PG metabolism. DESIGN Several doses of BMP-2 or TGF-beta 1 were injected into(More)
Signals delivered by the CD40 ligand, CD154, have crucial roles in immune responses in mammals, being required for development of germinal centres, maturation of T-dependent antibody responses, and generation of B-cell memory. To determine whether these functions were conserved in a non-mammalian species, a putative chicken CD 154 cDNA was used to make an(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was the development and physicochemical and immunological characterization of intranasal (i.n.) vaccine formulations of whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) coated with N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC). METHODS Synthesized TMCs with a degree of quarternization of 15% (TMC15) or 37% (TMC37) were tested in vitro for their(More)
In order to study the influence of antigen composition, spatial organization of antigen and the route of administration, four cell culture-derived, inactivated, nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine formulations, i.e. whole inactivated virus (WIV), split, subunit and virosome vaccines were prepared from a single antigen batch. We directly compared the(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) on articular cartilage proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in vivo and to investigate whether BMP-2 is able to counteract the effects of interleukin-1 (IL-1) on articular cartilage PG synthesis and content. METHODS BMP-2 alone or in combination with IL-1alpha was injected into murine knee(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent regulator of cell metabolism, proliferation, and differentiation. To study the role of endogenous TGF-beta in processes such as tissue repair and inflammation, potent and specific inhibitors are required. Because the type II TGF-beta receptor (TGF beta RII) has a high affinity for TGF-beta, the(More)