Harri I Toivonen

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Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where (137)Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is(More)
Remote detection of alpha emitters is achieved by measuring the secondary radioluminescence light (air fluorescence) that is induced by alpha particles when absorbed in air. A telescope was used to collect the radioluminescence photons to a photomultiplier tube, which is operated in the photon counting mode. Careful matching of photocathode response and(More)
A nuclear bomb particle containing 1.6 ng of Pu was investigated nondestructively with a position-sensitive α detector and a broad-energy HPGe γ-ray detector. An event-mode data acquisition system was used to record the data. α-γ coincidence counting was shown to be well suited to nondestructive isotope ratio determination. Because of the very small(More)
In the aftermath of a nuclear accident or malevolent act, it is of paramount importance to have the capability to monitor airborne radioactive substances by collecting air samples. For potentially dangerous missions, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) has developed an air sampler to be used on a small unmanned aerial vehicle. When(More)
In order to characterize the growth pattern of the human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line HL60, its kinetic parameters were studied. The doubling time was calculated from serial cell counts, the duration of the various cell cycle phases from the analysis of the labelled mitoses curve, and quiescent population from continuous labelling experiments.(More)
For the present study, which was performed to find a reliable method suitable for determination of the cell kinetic parameters of a continuous cell line, use was made of the macrophage cell line J774.1. The doubling time of the cell population was approximately 27 h. The continuous labeling curve showed that all the cells divide and almost no quiescent(More)
Several radionuclides were identified in the surface air in Finland following a nuclear incident in Sosnovyy Bor on 24 March 1992. In addition to gases, the release contained small uranium fuel particles. The radionuclide concentrations were of the same order of magnitude as the concentrations detected in Northern Finland in 1987 after the nuclear explosion(More)
Aerosol samples have been studied under different background conditions using gamma-ray coincidence and low-background gamma-ray singles spectrometric techniques with High-Purity Germanium detectors. Conventional low-background gamma-ray singles counting is a competitive technique when compared to the gamma-gamma coincidence approach in elevated background(More)
The most common explosives can be uniquely identified by measuring the elemental H/N ratio with a precision better than 10%. Monte Carlo simulations were used to design two variants of a new prompt gamma neutron activation instrument that can achieve this precision. The instrument features an intense pulsed neutron generator with precise timing. Measuring(More)