Haroldo A. F. Toque

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OBJECTIVE Diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of blindness, is characterized by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), leukocyte attachment to the vessel walls and increased vascular permeability. Previous work has shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the superoxide generating enzyme NOX2/NADPH oxidase play a(More)
Ischemic retinopathies, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinopathy of prematurity and retinal vein occlusion are a major cause of blindness in developed nations worldwide. Each of these conditions is associated with early neurovascular dysfunction. However, conventional therapies target clinically significant macula edema or neovascularization, which(More)
Enhanced arginase (ARG) activity has been identified as a factor that reduces nitric oxide production and impairs endothelial function in vascular pathologies. Using a gene deletion model, we investigated involvement of arginase isoforms arginase 1 and 2 (ARG1 and ARG2) in hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in a mineralocorticoid-salt mouse model.(More)
Endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the development of vascular disease, and it precedes clinically obvious vascular pathology. Abnormal activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway has been found to elevate vascular tone through unbalancing the production of vasodilating and vasoconstricting substances. Inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway can(More)
BACKGROUND Elevated arginase (Arg) activity is reported to be involved in diabetes-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction. It can reduce L-arginine availability to nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) and NO production. Akita mice, a genetic non-obese type 1 diabetes model, recapitulate human diabetes. We determined the role of Arg in a time-course of(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methamphetamine (MA) on spatial learning and memory and the role of tetrahydropalmatine (THP) in MA-induced changes in these phenomena in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into eight groups, according to different doses of MA, different doses of THP, treatment with both MA and THP, and(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and obesity are major risk factors for erectile dysfunction (ED). In diabetes, increased oxidative stress leads to decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and diabetic patients appear to be less responsive to conventional therapy with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. We investigated whether the soluble guanylyl(More)
A balanced diet is crucial for healthy development and prevention of musculoskeletal related diseases. Diets high in fat content are known to cause obesity, diabetes and a number of other disease states. Our group and others have previously reported that activity of the urea cycle enzyme arginase is involved in diabetes-induced dysregulation of vascular(More)
BACKGROUND Arterial stiffness (AS) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and increased collagen synthesis are key features in development of AS. Arginase (ARG), an enzyme implicated in many cardiovascular diseases, can compete with nitric oxide (NO) synthase for their common substrate,(More)