Harold Y. Hwang

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Polarity discontinuities at the interfaces between different crystalline materials (heterointerfaces) can lead to nontrivial local atomic and electronic structure, owing to the presence of dangling bonds and incomplete atomic coordinations. These discontinuities often arise in naturally layered oxide structures, such as the superconducting copper oxides and(More)
High-speed optical communication requires ultrafast all-optical processing and switching capabilities. The Kerr nonlinearity, an ultrafast optical nonlinearity, is often used as the basic switching mechanism. A practical, small device that can be switched with ~1-pJ energies requires a large Kerr effect with minimal losses (both linear and nonlinear). We(More)
Recent technical advances in the atomic-scale synthesis of oxide heterostructures have provided a fertile new ground for creating novel states at their interfaces. Different symmetry constraints can be used to design structures exhibiting phenomena not found in the bulk constituents. A characteristic feature is the reconstruction of the charge, spin and(More)
The nature and length scales of charge screening in complex oxides are fundamental to a wide range of systems, spanning ceramic voltage-dependent resistors (varistors), oxide tunnel junctions and charge ordering in mixed-valence compounds. There are wide variations in the degree of charge disproportionation, length scale, and orientation in the(More)
The motion of electrons in a solid has a profound effect on its topological properties and may result in a nonzero Berry's phase, a geometric quantum phase encoded in the system's electronic wave function. Despite its ubiquity, there are few experimental observations of Berry's phase of bulk states. Here, we report detection of a nontrivial π Berry's phase(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on vasomotor function and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 levels, an important serological marker of inflammation. METHODS We administered micronized progesterone (MP) 200 mg for 10 days(More)
Using a fifth-order aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which provides a factor of 100 increase in signal over an uncorrected instrument, we demonstrated two-dimensional elemental and valence-sensitive imaging at atomic resolution by means of electron energy-loss spectroscopy, with acquisition times of well under a minute (for a(More)
BACKGROUND Synthetic, not natural, progestagen may negate the favorable effects of estrogen. Nonetheless, observational studies report no differences in risk for clinical cardiovascular events between users of unopposed estrogen and users of estrogen combined with synthetic progestin. METHODS AND RESULTS In a double-blind study, we randomly assigned 20(More)
Electron-electron interactions can render an otherwise conducting material insulating, with the insulator-metal phase transition in correlated-electron materials being the canonical macroscopic manifestation of the competition between charge-carrier itinerancy and localization. The transition can arise from underlying microscopic interactions among the(More)