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Polarity discontinuities at the interfaces between different crystalline materials (heterointerfaces) can lead to nontrivial local atomic and electronic structure, owing to the presence of dangling bonds and incomplete atomic coordinations. These discontinuities often arise in naturally layered oxide structures, such as the superconducting copper oxides and(More)
Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and(More)
Electron-electron interactions can render an otherwise conducting material insulating, with the insulator-metal phase transition in correlated-electron materials being the canonical macroscopic manifestation of the competition between charge-carrier itinerancy and localization. The transition can arise from underlying microscopic interactions among the(More)
At the heart of modern oxide chemistry lies the recognition that beneficial (as well as deleterious) materials properties can be obtained by deliberate deviations of oxygen atom occupancy from the ideal stoichiometry. Conversely, the capability to control and confine oxygen vacancies will be important to realize the full potential of perovskite(More)
Using a fifth-order aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which provides a factor of 100 increase in signal over an uncorrected instrument, we demonstrated two-dimensional elemental and valence-sensitive imaging at atomic resolution by means of electron energy-loss spectroscopy, with acquisition times of well under a minute (for a(More)
The nature and length scales of charge screening in complex oxides are fundamental to a wide range of systems, spanning ceramic voltage-dependent resistors (varistors), oxide tunnel junctions and charge ordering in mixed-valence compounds. There are wide variations in the degree of charge disproportionation, length scale, and orientation in the(More)
Caenorhabditis elegans sqv mutants are defective in vulval epithelial invagination and have a severe reduction in hermaphrodite fertility. The gene sqv-7 encodes a multitransmembrane hydrophobic protein resembling nucleotide sugar transporters of the Golgi membrane. A Golgi vesicle enriched fraction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing SQV-7 transported(More)
The motion of electrons in a solid has a profound effect on its topological properties and may result in a nonzero Berry's phase, a geometric quantum phase encoded in the system's electronic wave function. Despite its ubiquity, there are few experimental observations of Berry's phase of bulk states. Here, we report detection of a nontrivial π Berry's phase(More)
Caviglia et al. [Nature (London) 456, 624 (2008)] have found that the superconducting LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface can be gate modulated. A central issue is to determine the principal effect of the applied electric field. Using magnetotransport studies of a gated structure, we find that the mobility variation is almost 5 times that of the sheet carrier density.(More)
We report on the fabrication of chalcogenide glass (Ag-As 2 Se 3) photonic crystal waveguides and the first detailed characterization of the linear and nonlinear optical properties. The waveguides, fabricated by e-beam lithography and ICP etching exhibit typical transmission spectra of photonic crystal waveguides, and exhibit high optical nonlinearity.(More)